Polska / śląskie
|בתי כנסת, בתי תפילה ועוד||בתי קברות||אתרי זכרון ליהודים שנרצחו||יודאיקה במוזיאונים||אחר|
|פרובינציה:||śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (לפני 1939)|
|מחוז:||wodzisławski / rybnicki (לפני 1939)|
|קהילה:||Rydułtowy / Rybnik (לפני 1939)|
|שמות אחרים:||Rudolphi Villa|
Rydůutowy [j. śląski]
Rydultau [j. niemiecki]
Рыдултовы [j. rosyjski]
Rydułtowy is a town in the Wodzisław County, south-western part of the Silesian Province. It is situated in the south-western part of the Silesian Upland, on the Rybnik Plateau, on River Sumina (a tributary of river Ruda).
Adam Marczewski /
There is scarce information about the small Jewish community in Rydułtowy. It was probably closely linked to the kehilla in Wodzisław Śląski. In 1858 there were 15 Jewish inhabitants in Rydułtowy Górne and Rydułtowy Dolne who constituted just 1.2% of the total number of inhabitants. Subsequent German censuses do not mention Jews. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust and the Aus der Geschichte jüdischer Gemeinden im deutschen Sprachraum of K. D. Alicke do not mention any Jewish presence in the town either. Nevertheless, according to Werner Juretzko, Rydułtowy was home to a population of Jews 1942, all of whom were arrested in that year and never seen again. They were likely victims of the Nazis.
In 1942 the Nazis established a forced labor camp in Rydułtowy located near the Charlottengrube Mine, the property of the Hermann Goering Werke. In 1943 a second labor camp was established in the area and situated in seven barracks built 600m away from the railway station near the Leon II Mine. In 1943 the administration of the Hermann Goering Werke carried out negotiations with the management of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp about employment of the camp’s prisoners. As a result, at the turn of 1944 and 1945 the Nazis established a sub-camp of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Rydułtowy, the so-called “A-Charlottengrube.” Slave laborers and war prisoners were replaced by Jews. The first transport of prisoners reached Rydułtowy on 19 September 1944; it consisted of 200 Jews from Hungary and Romania who were taken to the camp near the Charlottengrube Mine. The second transport reached its destination on 7 October 1944. The 600-700 Jewish prisoners from that transport were sent to the camp near the Leon II Mine. The two transports mentioned were the largest. Those that followed were smaller and served to replace prisoners who had died of exhaustion, starvation, and sickness. The prisoners came from Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Greece, and Romania. In the middle of 1944 a third camp was established in Rydułtowy. It was located on the premises of the Harcer Brickyard. One hundred Polish women from a penal camp in Wadowice were transported there. In November 1944 a fourth camp was cr
The first mentions of the village of Rydułtowy date back to 1228 when the village was called Rudolphi Willa, belonged to the archbishop of Wrocław and was part of the Duchy of Racibórz. In 1327 Duke Władysław Bytomski (1277-1352) rendered homage to the Bohemian King and since then Rydułtowy passed under Bohemian sovereignty and shared the political fate of Silesia. After the death of childless Louis II (1506-1526) King of Bohemia and Hungary in 1526, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand I ruled as a King of Bohemia; as a result, Rydułtowy came under Habsburg rule. From 1742 it belonged to Prussia. The most important moment in the history of Rydułtowy was the discovery of a rich coalfield towards the end of the 17th century. The first "Hoym" coalmine started operating in 1792, followed by "Wilhelm" mine in Radoszowy, "Szarlotte" in Czernica in 1806 and "Leo" mine in Rydułtowy in 1843.
In the period between the wars the inhabitants of Rydułtowy took active part in the Silesia uprisings in 1919-1922. In 1022 the village was annexed to Poland on the basis of results of the plebiscite in 1921. The independent municipalities of Rydułtowy Dolne, Rydułtowy Górne, Orłowiec, Radoszowy Dolne, Radoszowy Górne and Kolonii Buńczowiec were joined to make one municipality with a population of 13 thousand.
During World War II in September 1939 the German Army entered Rydułtowy and then the Soviet Army in March 1945.
After being granted the civic rights in 1951, the town was annexed to Wodzisław Śląski as its district in 1976. Rydułtowy regained the status of an independent town in 1992.