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Rydułtowy

Polska / śląskie

בתי כנסת, בתי תפילה ועוד בתי קברות אתרי זכרון ליהודים שנרצחו יודאיקה במוזיאונים אחר

סכום

פרובינציה:śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (לפני 1939)
מחוז:wodzisławski / rybnicki (לפני 1939)
קהילה:Rydułtowy / Rybnik (לפני 1939)
שמות אחרים:Rudolphi Villa
Rydůutowy [j. śląski]
Rydultau [j. niemiecki]
Рыдултовы [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
50.0578° N / 18.4175° E
50°03'28" N / 18°25'03" E

מקום

Adam Marczewski

Rydułtowy is a town in the Wodzisław County, south-western part of the Silesian Province. It is situated in the south-western part of the Silesian Upland, on the Rybnik Plateau, on River Sumina (a tributary of river Ruda).
 

עוד

היסטוריה

Adam Marczewski

In 1858 there were 15 Jewish inhabitants in Rydultowy Gorne and Rydultowy Dolne, and they constituted 1.2% of the total number of inhabitants .
During World War II the Nazis arrested all Jews from Rydultowy and sent them to ghettos in the General Government.
In 1942 the Nazis established in Rydultowy a compulsive labor camp and located it in the "Charlottengrube" mine, property of the Hermann Goering Werke pool. At first it served for compulsive workers, then war prisoners from Russia, France and England were detained there. The first camp was located near the old sand mine. In 1943 a second compulsive labor camp was established and it was situated in seven barracks built 600 m away from the railway station, by the "Leon II" mine (Adolf Hitlerstrasse, nowadays Ofiar Terroru Street).

In 1943 the administration of the Hermann Goering Werke pool carried on negotiations with the management of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp about the employment of the Oswiecim prisoners.
At the turn of 1944 and 1945 the Nazis established a sub-camp of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Rydultowy. The compulsive workers and war prisoners had been removed. The first transport of prisoners reached Rydultowy on 19 September 1944, it consisted of 200 Jews from Hungary and Romania. They were detained in the camp by "Charlottengrube" mine. The second transport reached destination on 7 October 1944. The 600-700 Jewish prisoners from that transport were sent to the camp near "Leon II" and "Leon III". The two transport mentioned were the largest ones. Those which followed were smaller and served to replace prisoners who had died of exhaustion, starvation and sickness. The prisoners came from Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Greece and Romania. They all worked in the mines.
In the middle of 1944 a third camp was established in Rydultowy. It was located on the premises of the Harcer brickyard. A group of 100 Polish women was detained in the barracks built there. They were forced to work as hard as slaves in the brickyard.
In November 1944 the fourth camp was created, called by the local people Judenlager" or "lager behind the bing". It was a selection place for prisoners, the weakest ones were picked

עוד

היסטוריה מקומית

Adam Marczewski

The first mentions of the village of Rydułtowy date back to 1228 when the village was called Rudolphi Willa, belonged to the archbishop of Wrocław and was part of the Duchy of Racibórz. In 1327 Duke Władysław Bytomski (1277-1352) rendered homage to the Bohemian King and since then Rydułtowy passed under Bohemian sovereignty and shared the political fate of Silesia. After the death of childless Louis II (1506-1526) King of Bohemia and Hungary in 1526, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand I ruled as a King of Bohemia; as a result, Rydułtowy came under Habsburg rule. From 1742 it belonged to Prussia. The most important moment in the history of Rydułtowy was the discovery of a rich coalfield towards the end of the 17th century. The first "Hoym" coalmine started operating in 1792, followed by "Wilhelm" mine in Radoszowy, "Szarlotte" in Czernica in 1806 and "Leo" mine in Rydułtowy in 1843.


In the period between the wars the inhabitants of Rydułtowy took active part in the Silesia uprisings in 1919-1922. In 1022 the village was annexed to Poland on the basis of results of the plebiscite in 1921. The independent municipalities of Rydułtowy Dolne, Rydułtowy Górne, Orłowiec, Radoszowy Dolne, Radoszowy Górne and Kolonii Buńczowiec were joined to make one municipality with a population of 13 thousand.


During World War II in September 1939 the German Army entered Rydułtowy and then the Soviet Army in March 1945.


After being granted the civic rights in 1951, the town was annexed to Wodzisław Śląski as its district in 1976. Rydułtowy regained the status of an independent town in 1992.

 

עוד

 

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