הדפס | A A A | דווח על בעיה | 47 611 889 תווים | 84535 תמונות | 791 וידאו | 117 אודיו | 1926 ערים

Pakość

Polska / kujawsko-pomorskie

בתי כנסת, בתי תפילה ועוד בתי קברות אתרי זכרון ליהודים שנרצחו יודאיקה במוזיאונים אחר

סכום

פרובינציה:kujawsko-pomorskie / pomorskie (לפני 1939)
מחוז:inowrocławski / inowrocławski (לפני 1939)
קהילה:Pakość / Pakość (לפני 1939)
שמות אחרים:Pakosch [j. niemiecki]
 
GPS:
52.8013° N / 18.0851° E
52°48'04" N / 18°05'06" E

מקום

Tomasz Kawski

The city is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province, at the left shore of the Noteć River, on the edge of the Gniezno Lakeland, between the Pakoski and Mielno Lakes. Historically it was situated in Pałuki.

Distances: Gniezno 48 km, Warsaw 224 km, Łódź 163 km, Bydgoszcz 43 km, Poznań 105 km.

 

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היסטוריה

Tomasz Kawski

Rozbiórka synagogi w Pakości. Fotografia wykonana w dn. 3 kwietnia 1941 roku | Nieznany

The Jews appeared in Pakość in the 15th century or at the turn of 15th and 16th centuries. In 1507 they were obligated to pay a coronation tax. In 1519, Kalman from Pakość had a sit seat in the committee, which debated in Inowrocław on about paying a ground rent to thea king for 1519-1521. In 1546 Izaak Pakosth was obligated by a king's mandate to take the oath, that he will pay a given price for goods purchased from Mikołaj Mrowiński. Izaak was accused of not meeting his obligations by the aldermen of Lublin. During 1564-1565 in a kehilla existed in Pakość existed a kehilla. A Both a synagogue and a school functioned. In the 16th cantury century also a cemetery also functined there. In 1565 the Jewish poll tax was paid in Pakość by 140 people. In 1569 king King Augustus made paid over 50 PLN to his servant, which was a part of the Jewish rent of e.g. the Jews from Pakość. In 1564-1565 the Jews from Pakość paid 25 florins for a rent. On the 31st of October 1629 the elders of the kehilla Dawid and Izrael Lapay made an oath in front of the city owner's representatives, concerning the honest collection of taxes „of every kind of trade, alcohol, and other various goods sales“ from his fellow believers. Between 1641-1642 a Jew from Pakość was registered in Gdańsk, he came there from for the economic reasons. In the autumn of 1656 after the seizure of the city by Stefan Czarniecki's Polish Army and , oin the 14th of May the massacrea pogrom against of the Jews took place. During the Polish-Swedish War many elements of the kehilla's infrastructure were destroyed: a school, a synagogue, and a cemetery. The Jewish kehilla did not existed any more. In the 18th century macevahs from the Jewish cemetery were used to build Calvary chapels. The Jews began to settle there once more time after 1812. The Articles of the Association of the Jewish Congregation in Pakość was approved on the 22nd of August 1834 (amended on the 24th of February and 4th of May 1870, 13th of June and 29th of September 1893). In that times the kehilla consisted of 89 members. Apart from Pakość, in on its borders the village of Rybitwy village was situated. At the beginning of the 19th century a synagogue was built in by the timber framing method. In 1903 it was came under the threat of collapse. It was replaced by, consecrated on the 17th of August 1904, a new solid building. D

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היסטוריה מקומית

Tomasz Kawski /

During the early Middle Ages there was a settlement protecting the crossing of the river Noteć, in the area of the present-day Pakość. The earliest mention, from 1259, provides information on its reconstruction by duke Kazimierz of Kujawy and Pomeranian duke Światopełk. The early Middle Ages settlement of Pakość was in fact an agglomeration of settlers consisting of two grads, one of which dated back to 1259, two open settlements and three bridges. During the fragmentation of Poland, battles for the settlement took place, between dukes of the Greater Poland and Kujawy region. At the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, a church dedicated to St. Jacob was built and in the 13th century a parish was established.

The founders of the settlement were most probably members of the knighthood family of Awdaniec. In the 13th century, Pakość changed its owners many times. At last, during the 1270s, dukes of Greater Poland granted the settlement to the knights from the Wyszelicz family. Since 1325, its owner was Bogumił from the Leszczyc family, and later Wojciech and Hektor from the Kościelec family. On 26 March 1356, King Kazimierz Wielki resigned from the rights to the grad and transferred them to the Provincial governor, Wojciech Leszczyc, as well as granted him an extensive immunity. On 9 February 1359, Kazimierz Wielki granted Pakość city rights based on the Magdeburg Law.

In 1660, the owner of Pakość, Zygmunt Działyński, made a journey to the Holy Land. At the beginning of the 16th century, another church dedicated to the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary was established. Between 1564 and 1598, the church of St. Jacob was taken by the Unity of the Brethren, who had settled in Pakość before 1441. In the mid-15th century, Erazm Krotowski, the owner of the town, joined the Unity of the Brethern. Eventually, the church fell into disrepair in the 18th century. In the town there was a hospital, the chapel of the Holy Ghost, and a parish school. The Gothic castle, built in the place of the former grad in the second half of the 14th century, remained a very characteristic building. Near the castle, a grad was situated with an impressive stone building, which was a summer residence of bishop Kasper Działyński. Representatives of the Działyński family granted the crumbling castle in 1630s to the Reformed Franciscans. During the1630s, they

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