Polska / wielkopolskie
|בתי כנסת, בתי תפילה ועוד||בתי קברות||אתרי זכרון ליהודים שנרצחו||יודאיקה במוזיאונים||אחר|
|פרובינציה:||wielkopolskie / poznańskie (לפני 1939)|
|מחוז:||rawicki / rawicki (לפני 1939)|
|קהילה:||Bojanowo / Bojanowo (לפני 1939)|
|שמות אחרים:||Schmückert - 1939-1945 [j.niemiecki]|
Dariusz Czwojdrak /
Bojanowo is located in central-west Poland, in Wielkopolska Privince, in Rawicz County. It lies 14 km north-west of Rawicz, 99 km south of Poznań, 344 km south-west of Warsaw.
Martyna Sypniewska /
The first Jewish settlements in Bojanowo appear in the first half of 18th century, yet it is suggested that Jews were present in the city shortly after its establishment. Lack of any source material unfortunately makes it impossible to establish the exact time when the first Jews came to the town, and the earliest numerical data comes from as late as 1765. Only the fact of beheading of Georg Kalimer, who had been sentenced to death for the participation in the murder of one Jew, can serve as a premise suggesting that Jews were present here earlier.
As with the other private towns, in Bojanowo the Jews were under the guardianship of the town owner, who conferred special rights on them. This fact can be proved by the documents of Adolf Warschauer from 1791 and 1792, which were kept in the Poznań Archive in the beginning of the 20th century.
At that time Bojanowo was one of the biggest and most important drapery centers in Wielkopolska, and a large group of craftsmen and merchants selling Bojanowo’s drapery lived there. Among the latter, there were many Jews, as evidenced by the report about South Prussia and New East Prussia from 1797. The acount included in the record marks the area of Bojanowo's trade contacts and the amounts of purchases made by Jewish merchants from Poznańskie province. As recorded, a single Jewish merchant bought several hundred stones of cloth, which he then transported up-country in Germany and to Silesia.
Speaking about the relations between the members of the Jewish community in Bojanów we can rely on the record by one of the Prussian officials, Zimmermann, who wrote on the matter at the time of Bojanowo's incorporation into Prussia. He informed that “local Jews were autonomous, and the elders, who were granted the right to settle the disputes concerning the community members, were the head of this community. Jews could appeal against the elders’ decision to the town owner acting as the second instance. The elders, together with the rabbi, represented the community to the outside and were accepted by the dominion before taking on their duties. The rights granted the Jews in Bojanowo allowed them to carry on free trade, establish plants and companies and run craft workshops.”
The Jewish craftsmen were not admitted to Christian guilds, and they also did n
Martyna Sypniewska /
The first information about the colony comes from 1583. In 1638 King Wladyslaw IV gave the colony a town charter. The official founder of the city Bojanów was Lord High Steward Stefan Bojanowski.
The first residents of the city were protestants form Silesia at the time of the Thirty Years War.
In the XVII century, Bojanowo was the main centre of Protestant thought. The Lutheran college was very well known throughout the whole republic.
In 1647 and 1651, the evangelical synod took place in Bojanow.
In 1663, Bogusław Bojanowski got permission from King Jan Kazimierz to found another city. The city received the name Bogusławowo and soon became a new home to many Czech refugees.
Bojanowo was a very important craft centre. The fabrics produced in Bojanowo were exported to Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine and far east. At the end of the XVIII century, there were over 200 linen drapers still actively working.
In 1793, both cities – Bojanowo and Bogusławowo – were combined into one city. That is why the city today has two main market squares.
In 1856, Bojanowo was conencted by rail to Wrocław and Poznań.
In 1857, due to a fire, the whole city was destroyed. 440 buildings were burned in total. Rebuilding work took place and the city was reconstructed exactly as it was before the fire based on old city maps.
In 1880, barracks to the cuirassiers were build. During World War II, the barracks contained the prison and the criminal camp in which 400 men were detained.
In 1881, Franz Junke built the brevery, which was running until recently – 2006.
In 1907, the German Agricultural School was founded in Bojanow, from 1922 represented by the Polish administration. (now known as the Agricultural School Complex).
On the 17th of January 1920, the city was again within Polish borders.