Polska / lubelskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||lubelskie / lubelskie (before 1939)|
|County:||krasnostawski / krasnostawski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Żółkiewka / Żółkiewka (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Żolkewka [j. jidysz]; ז'ולקייבקה [j. hebrajski]; Жулкевка [j. rosyjski]|
The rural commune of Żółkiewka is situated in the County of Krasnystaw, in the Lubelskie Province. It has a population of 790 inhabitants (as of 2008).
It lies in the north-western area of Roztocze and in the mid-northern part of the Giełczewska Heights, by the Żółkiewka river.
The first Jews settled down in Żółkiewka in the early 18th century at the invitation of Stanisław Żółkiewski, the landowner. Initially, the little Jewish community was subordinate to the kehillah in Turobin. It was not before ca. 1769-1770 at the earliest that a Jewish cemetery and a wooden synagogue were erected here. In 1775 Waad Arba Aracot (the Council of Four Lands which was the most important institution in the system of local government in Poland) allowed them to set up their own independent community. Most Jews lived in the town center, owning the better part of the estate there. In the first half of the 19th century Jews made up over 60% of the entire population and reached 70% at the end of the century, the number being unchanged until World War I. Most Jews in Żółkiewka occupied themselves with trading in groceries, iron and leather accessories. Aside from numerous workshops (tailors, shoemakers and capmakers) there were also wind mills and little manufactories and plants founded by Jewish entrepreneurs. After the wooden synagogue burnt down as a result of the fire in 1852, construction works of a new one began and were completed in 1868. A loan society was opened in 1899 and in 1911 a poorhouse was established. From the early 20th century the political and cultural was flourishing – in 1904 local offices of Poalei Zion were set up , and, from 1913 onward a Jewish Public Library was open.
The interwar period
In the interwar period the Hebrews made more than a half of the entire population of the village. Craftsmanship and trade were their main sources of income. They were also hired by small weaving works and tanneries. In 1930s tourism brought them significant profits – many Jewish little shops restaurants and guesthouses were opened specially for arriving patients.
Zionist parties and organizations operated in the village (Mizrachi, Poalei Zion and the Organization of General Zionists) with active youth wings. In 1923 a unit of Orthodox Agudas Israel was opened in Żółkiewka, also Bund enjoyed big support, being reactivated soon after the end of World War I. In addition to three heders and a communal Talmud Tora also the Bejs Jakow religious school for girls, headed by Aguda, existed here in the 1930s. Jewish children attended a Polish public elementary school as well.
In the early 19
The oldest records mentioning Żółkiewka (Żółkiew) date back to 1359 and are part of a document where heads of the Lublin and Chełm counties map out borders among landowners. In the second half of the 15th century, a Catholic parish was established in Żółkiewka.
In the second half of the 16th century, when Stanisław Żółkiewski converted to Calvinism, a Calvinist church was founded in the place of the former Catholic one. The Calvinist church existed until 1596. In 1702, Żółkiewka was granted city rights.
The Żółkiewski family owned the town until 1720. After them, the Głogowski family took over the property. In 1738 Antoni Gruszecki became the town owner, who was next followed by Tomasz Stamirowski.
In 1772 Żółkiewka was acquired by the Austrian Empire during the partitions of Poland , later, in it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815 – to the Kingdom of Poland. In 1801 Antoni Stamirowski sold the town to Jan Weber, a merchant from Lublin. In 1817 a primary school was founded in Żółkiewka, which in 1869 was deprived of its city rights and became a village once again.
In the late 19th century as post office was established here.
In 1906 a Credit Society was established here associating the members of communes of Rudnik, Rybczewice and Żółkiewka. After 1918, on the initiative of Stanisław Wrona-Merski, a member of the Sejm, the Infectious Diseases Ward was established at the Krasnynstaw County Hospital in Krasnystaw. Between 1921 and 1926 a paved road from Żółkiewka to Krasnystaw was built. In 1931, the next step was building a road from Żółkiewka to Turobin]. On the 21 May 1938 a fire broke out in the village and consumed all wooden buildings in the village.
After the Second World War broke out, on the 17th September 1939 the German army entered the village. At the end of September, the Russian Army also appeared there. They, however, retreated from Żółkiewka on the 6 October, and on 9 October the German army entered Żółkiewka again.
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