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Zielona Góra

Polska / lubuskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere


Province:lubuskie / inne (before 1939)
County:zielonogórski / Grünberg i. Schles. (before 1939)
Community:Zielona Góra / Grünberg in Schlesien (before 1939)
Other names:Grünberg in Schlesien [j. niemiecki];
51.9354° N / 15.5063° E
51°56'07" N / 15°30'22" E

Location /

Zielona Góra – a city in western Poland, Lubusz Province, a county capital. It is located 452 km west of Warsaw and lies on the slope of the valley of the Odra River.




Andrzej Kirmiel

Illustration nr 2 | Andrzej Kirmiel

The history of the Jews in Zielona Góra is inseparably linked with the Jewish community in Głogów. The town, which was situated in Głogów duchy, was probably granted the privilege De non tolerandis Judaeis . This town did not have its own Jews. However, the Jews coming for some time to Głogów had to be tolerated. Thus, the Jews who were first mentioned in town were the Jews from Głogów.

After the Jews were expelled from Silesia by the emperor Ferdynand I in 1558, Jewish  people did not  stay here for some time. Yet in 1598 Benedykt Izrael was granted an emperor’s  privilege  for himself and his relatives to settle down in Głogów as well as to trade in the area of Głogów Duchy and Zielona Góra.  The Jews had to pay a lot of taxes, so they had to be given an opportunity to work. The towns were forced to tolerate the Jews despite being opposed to it. According to preserved sources, despite few distinctions, the situation was similar in Zielona Góra. There was an agreement to stay in town for some time on condition that certain fees were paid by the Jews. They had to wear a red patch on their clothes so that people could recognize them straightaway. The Jews were not tolerated near Christian churches as well. In 1662, a town chronicler wrote: Godless Jewish people walk on the Christian property as they wish, even in the church courtyard. Ignoring these bans resulted in penalties. It could be a pillory (is the case of Abraham Isaak), but it also could be the gallows. Since 1724 there were the gallows in the suburbs of Zielona Góra, one was meant for the Jews.

After Zielona Góra was under Prussian rule (1740), the situation of the Jews changed for the better. The Prussian King Fryderyk II the Great was much more tolerant than the Habsburgs. Nevertheless, the civil rights could only be obtained after becoming a Christian. It happened in 1769 when a 36-year-old Jewish woman was christened. The most important town dignitaries took part in the ceremony of christening during which the neophyte was named Christine Elisabeth. It shows how the religious aspect influenced the attitude of Christians to the Jews.

Despite the fact that Jews did not have citizenship, they settled down in Zielona Góra under Prussian rule. After the second partition of Poland (1793), a lot


Local history

Andrzej Kirmiel /

From 1950 to 1998 the town of Zielona Góra belonged to Zielona Góra Province from an administrative point of view.

Before 1945 Żary was under German rule, Silesia Province, administrative district Legnica, Grünberg in Schlesien county.

The town of Zielona Góra was first mentioned in the 13th and 14th centuries. These are records in the documents of  the Głogów dukes. However, it is not known precisely when Zielona Góra was granted its town charter. According to the chronicles, the beginnings of town are connected with an administrative center of Silesian dukes which was situated in this area in 1222. The settlement was organized around it. In about 1272, a wooden castle was erected to the north of Zielona Góra.  It was taken over by Henry V – the duke of Głogów in 1365. The town of Zielona Góra was connected with the Duchy of Głogów and Lower Silesia for a long time. It is not clear from the source documents when the town was founded. Despite the fact that the year 1312 is mentioned in the document, the year 1323 was regarded as the year when the town rights were granted by the duke of Głogów-Żagań, Henry IV.

One of the oldest occupations of the residents of Zielona Góra was wine growing. This fact was mentioned in 1314. They also bred sheep and produced cloth. Thanks to the town rights Zielona Góra was granted, the town could develop economically, especially weaving and clothing developed.

Henry IX contributed to the town’s development.  He cared for order and tidiness in his duchy. In 1429, he gave an order to build a wall made of field stone and brick to surround the town. Fragments of this wall survived until today. Towards the end of the 15th century, after a war over succession, Władysław II Jagielończyk became the ruler of Silesia. Silesia along with Zielona Góra was under the Czech Republic rule, and later on it belonged to the Habsburg’s dynasty.

Zielona Góra was under Habsburg’s rule for over the next two centuries. It was a very difficult period for the town, because of political, religious and economic factors. Reformation and Protestant influence led to many religious conflicts, which had an impact on life in Zielona Góra. Evangelical residents, who made the most of the population of Zielona Góra, did not have the right to have their own church in the Catholic Habsburg st


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