Polska / łódzkie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||łódzkie / łódzkie (before 1939)|
|County:||zduńskowolski / sieradzki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Zduńska Wola / Zduńska Wola (before 1939)|
|Other names:||זדונסקה וולה [j. hebrajski]; Здуньская-Воля [j. rosyjski]|
Zduńska Wola is situated on Wysoczyzna Łaska on the Pichna River (right estuary of the Warta) in the 25 square kilometers almost flat area.
The town lies in central Poland approximately 190 km west of Warsaw, 50 km from Łódź, about 170 km northerneast of Wrocław and about 200 km from Poznań. Such location creates favorable national and transnational transportation connections both from west to east and from south to north. Zduńska Wola is the intersection of two important transportation lines Warsaw – Łódź – Wrocław and Silesia – Gdynia (ports).
The first information referring to Jews from Zduńska Wola comes from 1788. The information mentions that the settlement was inhabited by 33 Polish and Jewish families; there was a town hall, Catholic church, synagogue and a school “where Jews gathered”, all built by Masłowski.
In 1825, Stefan Prawdzic-Złotnicki achieved a tsarist privilege from Alexander I and the settlement upgraded to a town. Article 5 of the privilege concerned entirely the Jewish population and strictly indicated where the Jews were supposed to live, i.e. the former Stefana Street, Ogrodowa Street and the area (No. 39) at the town square. The Article in question mentioned as well the Jews who had lived in Zduńska Wola before the edict. These people, as far as they owned any real estate outside the marked area, could still own their property. However, when they died, the successors had to sell these properties to Christians within half a year. The only stipulation was that the Jews had a fixed occupation which would generate income. The Article listed the preferable professions and they were: fabricant, self-employed craftsman and salesman – wholesaler of handicraft products. The owner of the town was obliged to hand over the parcel intended for building a Jewish cemetery for the legal right to derive profit from the property without charge. At the same time, Article 5 determines that the Jewish settlement in Zduńska Wola was to be regulated. The number of Jews could not exceed one tenth of the Christian population.
In 1823, Jacob Hiller-Warszawski, Abram Wrocławski and Gabriel Bernstein acquired from Stefan Prawdzic-Złotnicki the so-called House under Three Stars. It was situated on the western side of the square and converted it into a synagogue. The charter privilege from 1825 informed that the synagogue could occupy the same place provided that its entrance would be on different side than the square.
The Jewish Kehilla, established in 1828, was for the first two years dependent both financially and administratively on the Jewish Kehilla in Łasek. Together with creating their own cemetery in 1826 the Jews from Zduńska Wola gained independence.
The Jewish Kehilla included the Jews living in the town and those from the neighboring villages. It had its own budget whose money was spent on various types of undertakings such as allowances, medical
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN /
In the years 1773-93 an unsuccessful location of the town on the premises of the village Zduny (known from 1394); from 1793 under Prussian partition, from 1807 in the Duchy of Warsaw, from 1815 under Russian partition (the Kingdom of Poland). From the 1820s one of the largest cloth, linen and cotton weaving centres; from the beginning of the 19th century a substantial Jewish population (about 40% of all inhabitants in 1939); in 1825 regained town rights; collapse of cloth making after 1832. From the 1880s numerous branches of industrial plants from Łódź; a railway link from 1903; the largest outwork weaving centre in the Łódź district between the first half of the 19th century and 1939; development of milling at the turn of the 20th century. Incorporated into the Third Reich during the German occupation of 1939-45; in September 1939 a transit camp for Polish prisoners of war; in 1940 two transit camps for officers of the Polish Army and civilians; between 1940 and 1942 a ghetto (about 8,300 prisoners, some died on site, craftsmen were transported to the ghetto in Łódź and others to the extermination camp in Chełmno). A county seat in the years 1956-75 and since 1999. Part of the Karsznice estate incorporated into Zduńska Wola in 1973. Place of birth of St. M. M. Koble.
The entry was prepared on the basis of source materials of PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers).