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Zabrze

Polska / śląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:śląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:zabrzański grodzki / (before 1939)
Community:Zabrze / (before 1939)
Other names:Zaborze
Zobrze [j. śląski]
Hindenburg [j. niemiecki]
זאבזיה [jidysz]
 
GPS:
50.3221° N / 18.7858° E
50°19'19" N / 18°47'08" E

Location

Adam Marczewski /

Zabrze – a city in southern Poland, in the Silesian Province, Zabrze County. It is located 22 km northwest of Katowice and 304 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Silesian Highland, by the Kłodnica river and its tributary, the Bytomka.

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History

Adam Marczewski /

Hotel Kochmanna | Z archiwum Dariusza Walerjańskiego

Most of Silesia was under the rule of the Kingdom of Prussia during the first Silesian War in 1742 (apart from Cieszyn Silesia and Duchy of Troppau).
Silesian Jews welcomed the era of the Prussian rules with great hope for a better life. Rabbi Marcus Brann, a Jewish historian, described the mood of that time, “It was a young Prussian king that oppressed Jews turned to as he came to Śląsk. They were full of hope and believed that a gleam of justice and gentleness will give some light to the dark paths of life” .

Firstly, Prussian authorities were indifferent to Silesian Jews. However, as the time passed, Frederick II of Prussia started striving for restriction of Jews’ freedom. Many different taxes were imposed on Jews, which contributed to some economic benefits for the country.
The Kingdom of Prussia announced the first regulation concerning Jews in 1748. All Jews living in Silesia for at least a year were ordered to pay 10% from the value of their property if they wanted to immigrate from the country. Specific restrictions were imposed on the Jews who were not successful in their economic activity. Those who went bankrupt or were claimed to be fences lost the right to live in Silesia and had to leave the country .
On April 17, 1750, Prussian authorities issued the General Prussian Code and General Privileges (Pruski Regulamin Główny i Generalne Przywileje), which in great detail governed the legal, social, political and economic situation of Jews. Jacob Jacobson commented on it as follows, “like everwhere else in Germany the aim of this code is to maintain a certian number of Jews living in the state, let them run a strictly specified economic activity within the state’s economic system and burden them with taxes as high as possible for protection and tolerance of their existence here.”.
Juden Reglement”, issued on December 2, 1751, was the fundamental legal act regulating the status of Silesian Jews (except from Wrocław and Głogów). It obligated land owners and municipalities to notify county authorities and royal office for tolerance of every case of Jewish settlement within 14 days. A system of control over the inflow of Jews to Silesia was created by that. No Jewish beggars and vagabonds were tolerated by Prussian authorities. .

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