Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||zabrzański / Stadtkreis Hindenburg O.S (before 1939)|
|Community:||Zabrze / Hindenburg O.S (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Hindenburg [j. niemiecki]; זאבזיה [j. jidysz]; זאבז'ה [j. hebrajski]|
Adam Marczewski /
Zabrze – a city in southern Poland, in the Silesian Province, Zabrze County. It is located 22 km northwest of Katowice and 304 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Silesian Highland, by the Kłodnica river and its tributary, the Bytomka.
First Jews appeared in Zabrze in 1771. The first mention of their existence in the town is related to a baptism which took place on 13 October 1771 in the local St. Andrew Church – a certain Jew was baptised and took on the name of Ignatius Mathias.
In 1776, the Prussian authorities ordered for all Jews living on the left bank of the Oder River to be resettled to the right bank. There, they were only allowed to settle in villages. After a few years, in September 1779, the authorities changed their decision and ordered for all Jews to leave villages and settle in towns. At the time, Gliwice became the main destination of the resettled Jews. On 17 August 1780, the authorities in charge of the Wrocław District designated fives towns where all Jews were to be resettled – Tarnowskie Góry, Mysłowice, Mikołów, Lubliniec, and Bieruń Stary. A note from 1781 mentions two Jewish families moving out of Zabrze. The heads of those families were Jacob Loebel, who moved to Mysłowice, and Elias Benjamin, who ended up living in Gliwice.
In 1787, the Prussian authorities repealed the order obliging Jews to move to designated cities, since their leaving usually resulted in economic damage. Various documents from 1788 mention the marriage of Johan Stein of Mikulczyce with Catharina Elgotowisch, the daughter of Adalbert of Małe Zabrze. Jews living in Zabrze are also mentioned in Prussian statistical tables drawn up the same year.
In 1790, Salomon Izaac of Brabant, a mining engineer, worked around the Silesian towns of Zabrze, Chorzów and Ruda Śląska on the recommendation of the Higher Office of Mining in Wrocław. He was a sworn mining expert and a geologist, searching for hard coal beds in the region. Thanks to his work, rich deposits of coal were discovered between Zaborze and Pawłów. In 1791, the first state coal mine in Silesia was established in Zabrze (it was called Königin Luise). The documentation of the Zabrze estate written in 1793 mentions a leaseholder by the name of Judel Baruch, who was as a distiller at the local court.
A census of Jewish population was carried out in the Silesian Province between October 1812 and November 1815; it did not point to the presence of Jews either in Zabrze or in its immediate vicinity. It was not until 1825 that the family of Mojżesz Glaser settled permanently