Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||tarnowski / dąbrowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Żabno / Żabno (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Zhabno [j. jidysz]; Żabno [j. niemiecki]|
Miasto Żabno leży w powiecie tarnowskim w województwie małopolskim. Liczy 4,2 tys. mieszkańców (1998 r.). Leży nad rzeką Dunajcem na Nizinie Nadwiślańskiej.
The Jews got the right to settle in Żabno in 1675, unfortunately there is a lack of information about the place they had come from. Maybe the then heir Rafał from Borzym brought them to the town and gave them some privileges, like: permission for the trade on fairs, the weekly and everyday markets in the town and the neighbouring villages. What is more they were premised to taproom, to run inns, to bake bread, to product meat and cured meat products, to build houses and to buy up real property from the Christians. There was a special street set in the town were the Jews could settle. The newcomers were also discharged from paying taxes for 7 years since their coming to town. Those favourable conditions caused the fast development of the Jewish society in Żabno. In 1692 the former rights were confirmed and broaden by the ability to build synagogue and cemetery. At the end of 18th century the town became the important centre of the rabbinic movement.
First famous rabbi of Żabno was Szalom Dawid Unger, the author of religious works, the son of Dawid Unger from Dąbrowa. In 1711 in Żabno the Jewish believers paid 766.06 Polish zlotys of the poll tax. In 1765 the commune was habited by 636 Jewish, including 460 living in the town. In 1777 there were 180 houses in the town, in which lived 155 Christian families and 94 Jewish ones. In 1777 Żabno counted 661 Christians and 333 Jews. In 1779 in 185 houses lived 146 Christian families and 79 Jewish ones. The population numbered 654 Christian citizens and 281 of Jewish believers.
19th century was the time of continuous natural disasters and poverty for Żabno. In 1813 and in 1828 there was a flood. In 1873 there was an outbreak of cholera epidemic and in 1888 there was a fire which destroyed almost the whole settlement. The Jewish citizens were unquestionably better prepared for any miseries. They had very well organised social help, their own hospital and the house for the poor and the old ones. What is more, the Community Council granted benefits for some Jewish families. Such benefits were given to four Jews during the time of 1895-1897.
The religious community of Żabno consisted of the following towns: Bieniaszowice, Chorążec, Czyżów, Demblin, Goruszów, Jadowniki Mokre, Jagodownik, Janikowice, Konary, Miechowice Małe, Miechowice Wielkie, Nieciecza, Nowopole, Odporyszów, Sieradza, Sikor
The first historic mention of Żabno comes from 1274, when Bolesław Wstydliwy, the Cracow Prince, gave the village to the knight Świętosław, who descended from the Gryfit family. This information proves that the settlement must had already existed before, it might have come into being in the second half of 12th century. In 1344 Żabno was found in the hands of Tarnowski family, and in the second half of 14th century it received town rights. The settlement had favourable development conditions because of its location on the trade route from Wojnicz to Korczyn, and near to Dunajec crossing as well. In the 15th century also craft, such as: furriery, tailoring, carpentering and flour-milling, begun to develop in the town. In 1442 they built there a parish and a wooden St. Spirit Church.
In the 16th century the town was habited by 600 citizens. The 1591 tax census says that there were 42 craftsmen in Żabno. In the second half of the 16th century the reformation reached the settlement. Its representative was the Żabno heir Hieronim Bużeński, who initiated the catholic places profanation, including the parish church and the St. Cross near the Hospital of the Poor. Lack of support of the reformation among the citizens of the town made the movement went out at the beginning of the 16th century.
17th century brought with itself bad luck. In 1637 there was a fire in the town. Next, Żabno experienced Swedish invasion and an attack of army led by Jerzy the 2nd Rakoczy of Siedmiogród, which caused quite big devastation in Żabno. Among other things, they set on fire the parish church. The town has also survived the invasion of Jan Dębiński, the foreman of Nowy Korczyn. Although he sold his Żabno properties to Gabriel Ochocki, he still forced taxes from the local peasants and ravaged the soil.
The events of 17th century caused the fall of Żabno and the local population’s emigration to the country or to the neighbouring towns. The owner Ochocki tried to improve the town’s economic situation but organizing the additional fairs and trades did not help. After his death Żabno came back to the hands of Dębiński family and after that, through the marriage, the Stadnicki family took it over.
In the 18th and 19th century Żabno was an impoverished town. During the partition it was found in the Austrian annexation. Half of the citizens