Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wyszkowski / pułtuski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Wyszków / Wyszków (before 1939)|
|Other names:||ווישקוב [j. jidysz]; וישקוב [j. hebrajski]; Вы́шкув [j. rosyjski]|
Wyszków - a city with county rights in central Poland in Mazowieckie Province. It lies 59 km northwest of Warsaw, by the Bug River.
Jews began settling in Wyszków in the second half of the 18th century. In 1781, 97 Jews lived within the Catholic parish in Wyszków. There is a note in a document prepared during a visit to the parish: “[…] Jews just sit around around the taverns or their rented properties in the town and the nearby villages. There are 97 of them. They have got no prayer houses nor Jewish cemeteries in this parish. However, they cross borders into towns in which they may receive permission from the local authorities for separate districts in which to establish their prayer houses and cemeteries [...]”.
Jews from Wyszków were part of the Węgrów kehilla until 1795. For a short period, they became part of the Ostrów kehilla in 1795, and then the Nasielsk kehilla (1796–1797). From 1798, it became a part of the Maków kehilla.
In January 1813, a Jewish district was established in Wyszków, which included ul.Poprzeczna in the western part of the town.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Jews specialized in leaseholds and the alcohol trade. In 1818, Szlama Joskowicz, Lewiek Jakubowicz, Dawid Judkowicz, Mosiek Judkowicz, Mosiek Abramowicz, Lejb Ciechanowiecki, and Maur Nayman earned their living in these manners. From 1857 to 1864, Abram Grosman from Ostrów held the monopoly on alcohol production and sale in Wyszków. Lewk Jakubowicz, from Wąsewo near Ostrołęka, was one of the first assistant rabbis in the 19th century. In 1816, he was 45 years old and he was succeeded by Lewek Jakubowicz.
By the 1820's,
The first mention of the Wyszków village, owned by the Bishops of Płock, dates back to 1203. At the strength of the king’s decision from 1501, following the example of the neighboring Pułtusk, Bishop W. Przerębski granted Wyszkow town rights under Chelmno (Kulm) Law in 1502. The inhabitants of the town received permission to cut trees and fish in the Bug River. Wyszków became the center of the bishops’ estates. The bishops allocated incomes coming from slaughters, market stalls, cloth cutting places and a fulling-mill to the needs of the town.
In 1528 with the ruler’s consent, a bridge was built on the Bug River. In the middle of the 17th century, Bishop Karol F. Waza built a spacious manor house. In 1578 there were bakers, distillers, tavern-keepers, potters, fishermen and a wheelwright in the town. Most inhabitants dealt with farming.
The wars from the middle of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century contributed to the town’s downfall. The inhabitants were unable to recover from it throughout the next century. In 1777 there were only 77 houses in Wyszków. Most of the inhabitants of the town lived on farming.
In 1869 Wyszków lost the town charter. In 1897 the Mińsk Mazowiecki-Ostrołęka railway line was established, which ran through the settlement. Railway contributed to the revival of trade and craft in Wyszków. Some timber industry companies and breweries were set up. In 1919 Wyszków regained the town charter.
During World War II, the town was almost entirely destroyed. In the 1950s and 1960s the town’s reconstruction started. In 1956 it was the seat of the county authorities. Nowadays the town plays the role of the local centre of industry, trade, service and administration.
Until the 18th century – Kingdom of Poland, Masovian Province
1795 – 1807 Prussia, New East Prussia, Płock Department, Pułtusk County
1807 – 1815 The Duchy of Warsaw, Płock Department, Pułtusk County
1815 – 1918 Russia (Kingdom of Poland), Łomża Guberniya, Pułtusk County
1918 – 1939 Poland, Warsaw Province, Pułtusk County
1939 – 1945 Germany (III Reich), General Government, Warsaw District, Ostrów Mazowiecki County
1945 – 1975 Warsaw Province
1975 – 1998 Ostrołęka Province
Since 1999 – Masovian Province, Wys