Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wyszkowski / pułtuski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Wyszków / Wyszków (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Wiszkow [j. jidysz]; ווישקוב [j. jidysz]|
Wyszków - a city with county rights in central Poland in Mazowieckie Province. It lies 59 km northwest of Warsaw, by the Bug River.
Jews started to settle in Wyszków in the second half of the 18th century. In 1781, 97 Jews lived on the territory of the Catholic parish in Wyszków. There is a note in a document prepared during the visitation in the parish: “[…] There are Jews sitting in the inns are in the town and the nearby villages and their number is 97 people. They have got no prayer houses nor Jewish cemeteries in this parish, however, they cross borders of the towns, in which they may receive a permission from the local authorities to separate the districts to establish their prayer houses and cemeteries [...]”. Jews from Wyszków were dependent to the Węgrów kahal until 1795. They were also dependent to the Ostrów kahal for a short period in 1795, and then to the Nasielsk kahal (1796–1797). Since 1798, they were dependent to the Maków kahal.
In January 1813, a Jewish district in Wyszków was established, which included Poprzeczna street in the Western part of the town. At the beginning of the 19th century, Jews were specialized in leasing agreements and trading alcohol. In 1818, these professions were occupied by: Szlama Joskowicz, Lewiek Jakubowicz, Dawid Judkowicz, Mosiek Judkowicz, Mosiek Abramowicz, Lejb Ciechanowiecki, Maur Nayman. From 1857 to 1864, Abram Grosman from Ostrów was the lessee of the revenue from the monopoly to produce and sell alcohol in Wyszków. Lewk Jakubowicz from Wąsewo near Ostrołęka was one of the first sub-rabbi in the 19th century. In 1816, he was 45. Lewek Jakubowicz was his successor.
In the 1820s Jews from Wyszków started to separate themselves from the community in Maków. For this purpose they built their own wooden prayer house (400 people could be there) without an approval from the authorities and established a cemetery, the cheder and a bath house. What is more, they paid the assistant rabbi and the rabbi, subsequently. Their efforts were successful. In 1858 the independent Synagogue Supervision was established in Wys
The first mention of the Wyszków village, owned by the Bishops of Płock, dates back to 1203. At the strength of the king’s decision from 1501, following the example of the neighboring Pułtusk, Bishop W. Przerębski granted Wyszkow town rights under Chelmno (Kulm) Law in 1502. The inhabitants of the town received permission to cut trees and fish in the Bug River. Wyszków became the center of the bishops’ estates. The bishops allocated incomes coming from slaughters, market stalls, cloth cutting places and a fulling-mill to the needs of the town.
In 1528 with the ruler’s consent, a bridge was built on the Bug River. In the middle of the 17th century, Bishop Karol F. Waza built a spacious manor house. In 1578 there were bakers, distillers, tavern-keepers, potters, fishermen and a wheelwright in the town. Most inhabitants dealt with farming.
The wars from the middle of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century contributed to the town’s downfall. The inhabitants were unable to recover from it throughout the next century. In 1777 there were only 77 houses in Wyszków. Most of the inhabitants of the town lived on farming.
In 1869 Wyszków lost the town charter. In 1897 the Mińsk Mazowiecki-Ostrołęka railway line was established, which ran through the settlement. Railway contributed to the revival of trade and craft in Wyszków. Some timber industry companies and breweries were set up. In 1919 Wyszków regained the town charter.
During World War II, the town was almost entirely destroyed. In the 1950s and 1960s the town’s reconstruction started. In 1956 it was the seat of the county authorities. Nowadays the town plays the role of the local centre of industry, trade, service and administration.
Until the 18th century – Kingdom of Poland, Masovian Province
1795 – 1807 Prussia, New East Prussia, Płock Department, Pułtusk County
1807 – 1815 The Duchy of Warsaw, Płock Department, Pułtusk County
1815 – 1918 Russia (Kingdom of Poland), Łomża Guberniya, Pułtusk County
1918 – 1939 Poland, Warsaw Province, Pułtusk County
1939 – 1945 Germany (III Reich), General Government, Warsaw District, Ostrów Mazowiecki County
1945 – 1975 Warsaw Province
1975 – 1998 Ostrołęka Province
Since 1999 – Masovian Province, Wys
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