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Wałbrzych

Polska / dolnośląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:Wałbrzych / Waldenburg (before 1939)
Community:Wałbrzych / Waldenburg (before 1939)
Other names:Waldenburg
Waldenburg in Schlesien [j. niemiecki] Walmbrich
Walbrich [dialekt śląski] Valdenburk
Valbřich [j. czeski]
 
GPS:
50.7831° N / 16.2847° E
50°46'59" N / 16°17'05" E

Location

Miłosz Gudra

Wałbrzych – miasto powiatowe położone na południowym zachodzie Polski, w województwie dolnośląskim. Odległe 75 km na południowy zachód od Wrocławia, 442 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy. Leży nad rzeką Pełcznicą.

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History

Wojciech Wojtasiak /

Żydowskie przedszkole w Wałbrzychu, lata 40. | nieznany

Wałbrzych

It was only after the so-called emacipation edict, issued on 11 March 1812 by the king Frederick William III, that the Jewish community in Wałbrzych was created. By this document, Jews became the rightful citizens of the kingdom of Prussia. The first Wałbrzych Jew known by name was Moses Lax.

From 1859, there was a branch of the Jewish community of Świdnica in Wałbrzych, to which the Jews from Wałbrzych and 11 families from the nearby area belonged. In 1861, the number of the Jewish inhabitants in the area of the district increased to 189. In the 60s of the 19th century, the Jewish community in Wałbrzych established their own . About 40 years later, the community stopped using that area due to the significant industrialization of the neighbourhood (mines). From, 1902, burials took place in . At first, the Wałbrzych Jews gathered for prayer in rented premises at the Main Square. In 1882, a synagogue was built .

Along with the increase in the number of inhabitants, the independence of the community grew as well. After disputes with the Świdnica community in the years 1875-1878, in 1878, the Royal Government (Königliche Regierung) permitted to create an independent Jewish community in Wałbrzych. Its first Articles are dated 27 May 1879. At that time, the Management Board of the Community was composed of A. Raschkow, Salomon Böhm and Benno Lax. It was a period in which the Wałbrzych community flourished. In 1880, it had 328 members. Ten years later, this number fell to 253.

At the end of 20s of the 20th century, there were about 220 people of the Jewish origin living in Wałbrzych. In 1933, there were 195 of them living in the city itself and 127 in other places within the district. At that time, the Management Board of the Community in Wałbrzych was composed of: Alfred Basch, S. Philippsberg and Leo Künstlinger and its representatives were Adolf Meyer, dr Leo Cohn and Hermann Wieser. Even before the national socialists had taken over the power, the first attacks on Jewish stores and merchants took place. In time, they kept increasing, which resulted in the emigration of local Jews.

During the Crystal Night (9/10 November 1938), there were riot

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Local history

Wojciech Wojtasiak

Panorama of the city | unknown

In historical terms, the origins of the town go back to the Middle Ages, most likely the late 12th c. Already then, the place was taken by a forest villages of the Slavs, which, over time, transformed into a small fortified settlement. Where the villages had been, a town developed that was granted the town charter prior to 1426. For hundreds of years Wałbrzych (Waldenburg) had been a town of minor significance, though after 1750 it was in its economic heyday. The town was not destroyed during the Second World War. After 1945 it became a part of the polish administrative area.

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