Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||Wałbrzych / Waldenburg (before 1939)|
|Community:||Wałbrzych / Waldenburg (before 1939)|
Waldenburg in Schlesien [j. niemiecki] Walmbrich
Walbrich [dialekt śląski] Valdenburk
Valbřich [j. czeski]
Wałbrzych – miasto powiatowe położone na południowym zachodzie Polski, w województwie dolnośląskim. Odległe 75 km na południowy zachód od Wrocławia, 442 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy. Leży nad rzeką Pełcznicą.
Not until the emancipation edict of 1812 was there a kehilla established in Wałbrzych. The first Jew of Wałbrzych whose name is known was Moses Lax.
From 1859, a branch of the Świdnica Jewish commune was active in Wałbrzych. All Jews from Wałbrzych belonged to it as well as 11 families which lived in the localities nearby. In 1861, the number of Jewish population in the county increased to 189.
The more numerous the Jewish population was, the more independent the commune became. After disputes with the Świdnica commune, in 1875-1878 a decision was made to establish an independent Jewish kehilla in Wałbrzych. The first statute of the kehilla comes from 27 May 1879, and its first management was composed of: A. Raschkow, Salomon Böhm, and Benno Lax.
In 1933, about 195 Jews lived in Wałbrzych, and about 127 in other localities of the commune. In 1933, the management of the Synagogue Commune in Wałbrzych was made up of: Alfred Basch, S. Philippsberg, and Leo Künstlinger; and its representatives were: Adolf Meyer, dr Leo Cohn, and Hermann Wieser.
During the Crystal Night of 1938 antisemitic persecutions took place in Wałbrzych during which the Wałbrzych synagogue was burnt. According to the data of 17 May 1939, 28 Jews still lived in Wałbrzych, and in Wałbrzych county – 38.
After WWII, already in mid-May 1945, the first Jews arrived to Wałbrzych – former prisoners of Gross-Rosen concentration camp and its branches located near the town. In June, there were almost 100 Jewish people in the town. Soon, Wałbrzych became the third largest – following Wrocław and Dzierżonów – Jewish center in Lower Silesia. About 7,466 Jewish settlers were told to settle in the town, but many of them did not intend to settle in the town permanently.
In December 1946, as many as 10,200 Jews lived in Wałbrzych, i.e. 17.9 % of all residents. In April 1947, 4,891 Jews lived in the town, of whom 2,607 women and 2,284 men. In 1948 – according to the estimates of the Provincial Committee of Jews in Wrocław – 6, 744 Jews lived in Wałbrzych.
In the town, there were three Jewish schools, two dormitories for the youth, common rooms, libraries, soup kitchens, and canteens. According to the data of the Yad Vashem Archive there were three rabbis in Wałbrzych – Chaskiel Grubner (head rabbi of Wałbrzych), Zoberman, a
In historical terms, the origins of the town go back to the Middle Ages, most likely the late 12th c. Already then, the place was taken by a forest villages of the Slavs, which, over time, transformed into a small fortified settlement. Where the villages had been, a town developed that was granted the town charter prior to 1426. For hundreds of years Wałbrzych (Waldenburg) had been a town of minor significance, though after 1750 it was in its economic heyday. The town was not destroyed during the Second World War. After 1945 it became a part of the polish administrative area.
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