Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wadowicki / wadowicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Wadowice / Wadowice (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Frauenstadt Wadowitz (1939-1945) [j. niemiecki]; Vadovitza [j. jidysz]; ודוביצה [j.hebrajski]|
Anna Kępińska /
Wadowice - a city in southern Poland, Małopolska Province, Wadowice County. It is located 50 km southwest of Krakow and 348 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Silesian Foothills, on the Skawa river.
The history of Jews in Wadowice dates back to the end of the nineteenth century. There are few factors explaining why the Jewish settlement started so late. First, this part of Małopolska region where Wadowice is situated did not belong to Poland in medieval times; until 1564, it was a part of the Duchy of Oświęcim and Zator, whose rulers, the Piast dukes, did not tolerate Jews on their territories and allowed them to settle only in Oświęcim or Zator. Second, the bourgeoisie in Wadowice had the de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege. The privilege was issued by Augustus III of Poland on 6 November 1754 in Warsaw and confirmed later on by successive rulers. It indicates that Jews had never lived there before. The absence of Jews in Wadowice can be confirmed by the fact that there is no mention of Wadowice in the register of the Council of Four Lands spanning the years 1580–1764, which listed kahals paying levies. The de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege was confirmed on 28 May 1765 with the royal decree issued by Stanisław II August.
After the First Partition of Poland (1772), Wadowice was under Austrian rule. Francis II, Emperor of Austria, confirmed the rescript of the de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege issued on 28 May 1793. This restriction was legally binding until the 1860s. At that point, Jews settled in neighbouring villages of Chocznia, Tomice, Radocza and Klecza Górna and in a municipality “Mikołaj”, so-called Groble, located on the outskirts of Wadowice and belonging to Krobicki family. Around 1830, the first wooden prayer house was constructed .
After the Spring of Nations, the Jewish community in Austria was granted political rights. However, it was only the Basic Law in 1867 that guaranteed the equality of rights to all citizens of Austria, giving them equal citizenship regardless of their religious denomination. These reforms allowed the first Jews there to settle in Wadowice shortly after the unsuccessful January Uprising. Baruch Thieberg, a participant of the uprising, was one of the first Jews permitted to settle. The fact that he was an insurgent ensured him safety and tolerance among local townspeople. Other newcomers came to the town shortly thereafter.
A significant stage in the development of Wadowice took place in 1867–1890 – the first and most intense