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Wadowice

Polska / małopolskie

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Summary

Province:małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)
County:wadowicki / wadowicki (before 1939)
Community:Wadowice / Wadowice (before 1939)
Other names:Wadowitz [j.niemiecki]
Vadovitza [j.jidysz]
ואדוביץ [j.hebrajski]
Вадовице [j.rosyjski]
 
GPS:
49.8828° N / 19.4939° E
49°52'58" N / 19°29'38" E

Location

Anna Kępińska /

Herb miasta Wadowice | Bastianow

Wadowice - a city in southern Poland, Małopolska Province, Wadowice County. It is located 50 km southwest of Krakow and 348 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Silesian Foothills, on the Skawa river.

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History

Anna Kępińska

Zdjęcie zrobione prawdopodobnie w roku 1910. | nieznany

The history of Jews in Wadowice is dates back just to the end of the 19th century. There are few factors explaining why the Jewish settlement started so late. Firstly, this part of Małopolska region where Wadowice is situated did not belong to Poland in the medieval times, but until 1564 it was a part of the Duchy of Oświęcim and Zator, whose rulers, the Piast dukes, did not tolerate Jews on their territories and allowed them to settle only in Oświęcim or Zator. Secondly, the bourgeoisie in Wadowice had the de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege. The privilege was issued by Augustus III of Poland on 6 November 1754 in Warsaw and confirmed later on by following rulers. It indicates that Jews had never lived there before. The absence of Jews in Wadowice can be confirmed by the fact that there is no mention of Wadowice in the register of the Council of Four Lands spanning the years 1580–1764, which listed qahals paying levies. The de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege was confirmed on 28 May 1765 with the royal decree issued by Stanisław II August.

After the First Partition of Poland (1772), Wadowice was within the borders of the Austrian Partition. Francis II, Emperor of Austria, confirmed with the rescript the de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege issued on 28 May 1793. This restriction was legally binding until the 1860s. Until that time, Jews settled down in neighbouring villages of Chocznia, Tomice, Radocza and Klecza Górna and in a municipality “Mikołaj”, so-called Groble, located on the outskirts of Wadowice and belonging to Krobicki family. Around 1830, the first wooden house of prayer was erected here.

As a result of the Spring of Nations, the Jewish community in Austria was granted political rights. However, it was only the Basic Law in 1867 that guaranteed the equality of rights to all citizens of Austria, giving them equal citizen’s and political rights regardless of their religious denomination. Thanks to these legal changes the first Jews there began to settle in Wadowice short after the unsuccessful January Uprising. Baruch Thieberg, a participant of the uprising, was the first one who was allowed to settle there. The fact that he was an insurgent ensured him safety and tolerance of local townspeople. Other newcomers came to the town short thereafter.

A significant stage i

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