Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wadowicki / wadowicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Wadowice / Wadowice (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Wadowitz [j.niemiecki]|
Wadowice is a town in Wadowice County, Małopolska (Lesser Poland) Province, situated on Pogórze Śląskie (Silesian Foothills), on River Skawa. Located 50 kilometers from Kraków, it is the capital of Wadowice County. At the time when the town was chartered it was called Frauenstadt, and when it was incorporated to the German Reich, its name was Wadowitz.
The history of Jews in Wadowice is very short dating back to as late as the end of the 19th century. There are few factors explaining why the Jewish settlement started so late. Firstly, the part of Lesser Poland where Wadowice is situated did not belong to Poland in the medieval times, but was part of the Duchy of Oświęcim and Zator, whose rulers, the Piast dukes, did not tolerate Jews in the territories dependent on them and allowed them to settle only in Oświęcim or Zator. Secondly, Wadowice townspeople had the de non tolerandis Iudaeis privilege. King August III Sas issued the first privilege of such kind on 6 November 1754 in Warszawa. It indicates that Jews had never lived there before, and the decree prohibiting Jewish settlement and trade was only a continuation of previous decisions. It can be confirmed by the fact that there is no mention of Wadowice in the register of the Council of Four Lands spanning the years 1580–1764, which listed kehillot paying levies. The town is not marked on a map attached to the book of Polish Jewry either.
A record of 1764 confirmed the rescript of Emperor Francis of 29 May 1793. It was like that until the 1860s. Until that time, Jews settled down in neighboring villages of Chocznia, Tomice, Radocza and Klecza Górna and in “Mikołaj” wójtostwo (a municipality), so-called Groble located on the outskirts of Wadowice and belonging to Krobicki family. It was not until the changes to the imperial legislation guaranteeing equality of rights to all nations and denominations were introduced in 1868 that the Jews could apply for lifting the ban. An influx of people came before political decisions were made, as, according to the accounts, the first Jews arrived in Wadowice shortly after the January Uprising, so after 1863. Baruch Thieberg, an active participant of the uprising, was probably one of them. He used the fact that he was an insurgent as an argument against the threats of the Poles. Other newcomers appeared very quickly in the town.
There was yet no kehilla in 1876, since the Jews living in Wadowice County belonged to Zator Municipality at this time. However, Wadowice was mentioned as an official kehilla in the list of Jewish kehillot of 1891 thanks to the Wadowice Jews who made use of the duty of kehillot and statutes registration introduced by the Austrian authorities. It was helpfu
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