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Szlichtyngowa

Polska / lubuskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:lubuskie / inne (before 1939)
County:wschowski / Fraustadt (before 1939)
Community:Szlichtyngowa / Schlichtingsheim (before 1939)
Other names:Schlichtinkowo
Schlichtingsheim [j.niemiecki]
 
GPS:
51.7130° N / 16.2431° E
51°42'46" N / 16°14'35" E

Location

Andrzej Kirmiel

The town of Szlichtyngowa is located in the south-eastern part of Lubuskie Province, at the crossing of national roads No. 12 and 324.

The town belongs to Wschowa County and it is the seat of urban and rural municipality of Szlichtyngowa.

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History

Andrzej Kirmiel

Szlichtyngowa was a typical private town in which the owner decided on everything. In the foundation charter of 11 July 1645, its founder and the first owner, Johann von Schlichting, introduced absolute prohibition of Jewish colonization. His descendants were not so rigorous and allowed Jews to settle in the town.

The reference books do not agree as to the date when Jews appeared in Szlichtyngowa. According to Dariusz Czwojdrak it did not occur until the mid-18th century. Basing on the town archives, Heppner and Herzberg moved this date to approximately 1713. This seems probable, because after the war destruction and the plague raging in 1709-1710, there were attempts aimed at reviving the economic situation. At that time, the Schlichtings’ property in nearby Górczyna burnt down a few times. Arguably, all that contributed to allowing Jews to settle down in the town.

The Jews under the rule of the Schlichtyngs were mainly involved in small business and imported goods from Głogów and Frankfurt on the Oder river. They did not own houses. The kehilla was organized in a similar way as the one in nearby Bojanów and there were 22 families there, in total 160 people. The financial liabilities towards the Republic of Poland at that time amounted to the capitation of 12 groshes. The dominion fees totalled 2 thalers and 20 silver groshes annually and one grosh per cemetery. Apart from that, the kehilla paid all town taxes and additionally 2 silver groshes for the town council per family.

It is not known when the first synagogue was built. According to the sources of 15 October 1824, the kehilla entered into an agreement with the von Schlichting family, pursuant to which, the square located at the end of Pfortengasse Street on which there was an old synagogue which required a thorough repair, was passed to the family as a hereditary property. The agreement stipulated that the kehilla was supposed to build a House of God at its own expense, inlcuding all administrative costs and the synagogue maintenance costs. In return, the kehilla paid the Schlichtyngs an annual fee of 5 thalers.

Little correspondence addressed from the kehilla to the king was preserved when Szlichtyngowa came under the rule of Prussia (1793), because Prussia tried to control Jews to a much grater degree than the Republic of Poland. An interesting example is

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Local history

Andrzej Kirmiel

Ilustracja nr 1 | Andrzej KirmielAdministratively, from 1975 to 1998, Szlichtyngowa belonged to Leszczyńskie Province, and in 1950-1975 to Zielonogórskie Province.

Before 1922, the town was under the Prussian rule, the Province of Poznań, Fraustadt County, in 1922-1939 it belonged to the border Province of Poznań – West Prussia, and from 1939 to the Province of Śląsk (Silesia), administrative district of Legnica, Fraustadt County.

The history of Szlichtyngowa does not start until the 17th century and is connected with the von Schlichting family. The town owes its foundation to Johann von Schlichting, the land judge from Wschowa, who in 1634 purchased the village of Górczyna and its surrounding areas. In 1644 Schlichting received from King Władysław IV the privilege of establishing a small town in that territory under the Magdeburg Law under the name of Schlichtinkowo.

The town was established anew and it was characterised by planned development. [see picture No. 1] Szlichtyngowa based its development on immigration of Protestant refugees from Silesia. In the foundation charter as of 11 July 1645 Johann von Schlichting guaranteed them total religious freedom and tax exemption for eight years, and introduced absolute prohibition of Jewish colonization. He also defined the townspeople’s obligation, following the example of the privileges in Leszno. Under the charter from King Jan Kazimierz of 1653, there was a warehouse of linen designed for export in the town.

Szlichtyngowa was a craft centre. At the beginning of the 18th century, there were 20 shoemakers, 19 millers, 10 drapers, 9 bakers, 8 tailors, 5 furriers, 5 butchers, 5 wheelwrights, 5 carpenters and 5 potters in the town. Szlichtyngowa never developed in terms of industry, therefore the population growth was slight. In 1793 the town had 748 inhabitants, and in 1861 – 1102.

In 1791, another owner Andreas von Schlichting created a system of heredity in the town of Szlichtyngowa and the Górczyna property.

After the second partition of Poland in 1793, the town of Szlichtyngowa became part of Prussia. In 1807-1815 it belonged to the Warsaw Duchy. In 1906 Szlichtyngowa received rail connection with Góra and Głogów. After the First World War, the town, due to its ethnic character, remained in Germany. It was not until 1927 that the town hall was buil

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