Polska / lubuskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||lubuskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||świebodziński / Züllichau-Schwiebus (before 1939)|
|Community:||Świebodzin / Schwiebus (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Schwiebus [j. niemiecki]|
The town of Świebodzin is the capital of the Lubucz Voivodeship, with a population of 21.700 inhabitants (as of 2004). It is situated in the Łagów Lake District.
The first to mention Jews in Świebodzin was a historian writing about persecutions of Jewish inhabitants in 1349. Next record dates back to the second half of the XVIth century when the presence of Jewish wool and cloth merchants was noted. In 1577 Jewish community was granted legal protection by the authorities of Świebodzin. In XVIIIth century first Jewish merchants from the west, among others from Frankfurt am Mein, appeared in the city. They ordered big quantities of cloth for the French army. Once Silessia nad Świebodzin have been taken over by Prussia, subsequent huge transactions by the Jewish entrepreneurs took place. In XVIIIth century Prussia provided Jews with economic and religious freedom, which influenced the wellbeing of Jews in the region. In 1812 Jews were recognized as Prussian citizens enjoying full citizen rights. In the end of the XIXth century a process of germanisation of Jewish communities started. In the seventies of the XIXth century there were about 10 Jewish families living in the city. They worked as merchants, craftsmen and sellers. Some of the families originated from the east (Laboschin, Lewin, Michaeli, Treuherz), others came from the west (Eitig, Philippsborn, Krause, Schlesinger). Others came from the western Germany, Brandenburg and nearby Silessia. In 1895, 75 people of Jewish origin lived in the city. For some of them Świebodzin was just a transfer point in further migration, especially migration towards the west (Levysohn, Kron, Yorwartz, Pionkowski). In 1910 there were 60 Jews in the city. They organized their own Kehilla and built a synagogue in what is today’s Kolejowa street.
After the First World War the number of Jewish inhabitants in the city doubled. In 1929 there were 112 Jewish inhabitants, which accounted for 1% of the city’s population. In 1924 a synagogue in today’s Słowackiego street was erected. During the thirties of the XXth century an Association of Jewish Women was active in the city. After 1939, together with Adolf Hitler’s coming to power, the situation of Jews in Świebodzin deteriorated. Part of Jews emigrated from the city. In 1938 Jews of Polish origin were deported to a nearby Zbaszyń. German Jews were taken to a concentration camp in Sachsenhausen.
It was first mentioned in 1302. Świebodzin obtained its limited town charter in 1319. From that time it was a duke’s town. The town was the center of trade and commerce. The brewing and textile industries flourished here. Wine was produced here as well. In 1329 Świebodzin was often mentioned among towns and strongholds. From 1347 to 1348 the bubonic plague spread here. The Jews living in Świebodzin were first mentioned in 1349 when they were persecuted. In the 15th century 2 fairs were organized here every year, and from the year 1547 the number increased to 3 fairs. In the Middle Ages the tanning and the fur industries developed in Świebodzin. On the outskirts of town agriculture flourished as well. In the 16th century the town faced fires, an earthquake and a lot of epidemics. In the second half of the 16th century the local Jews dealt in wool and cloth. In 1577 Jewish people were under legal protection of the town council. The Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century stopped the economic growth of Świebodzin. In 1728 the first dyeworks of cloth was opened here. In 1742 the town was under Prussian rule. In the 18th century the first Jewish traders from the West, among others from Frankfurt (Main), appeared in Świebodzin. They ordered a lot of cloth for the French Army. After Silesia and Świebodzin were captured by Prussia, other big transactions were made by the Jewish merchants. During the 18th century modernization, Prussia ensured economic and religious freedom of the Jews. In 1812 the local Jews became citizens of Prussia with full rights. Towards the end of the 19th century the process of Germanization of the Jewish communities took place. From 1808 to 1812 Świebodzin was a garrison town. In 1865 a new gas-plant was opened and in 1928 a new sewage system started to exist in Świebodzin. In the 70s of the 19th century about 10 Jewish families lived here. They were in trade and commerce. Some of them had their origins in the East (such families as Laboschin, Lewin, Michaeli, Treuherz), some came from the West (such families as Eitig, Philippsborn, Krause, Schlesinger).The others came from the West Germany, Brandenburg and nearby Silesia. In 1895 75 people of the Jewish origin lived in Świebodzin. For some Jews Świebodzin was a transitional stage for further emigration, especially to the Wes