Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||krakowski / krakowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Świątniki Górne / Świątniki Górne (before 1939)|
Świątniki Górne is situated on Świątnicki Plateau, in Kraków County, in Małopolskie (Lesser Poland) Province. The municipality lies next to Kraków, Mogilany, Siepraw and Wieliczka.
Because of a church prohibition Jews were not allowed to settle on the territory of Świątniki Górne, however many of them lived in the neighborhood; Ochojno, Rzeszotary, Siepraw, Konary, Mogiany, Wrząsowiecze, Swoszowice.
Jews were mostly leasing court inns. One of them was situated about half of a kilometer from the metalwork school in the town area called Buk. The wife of the tenant Szmul was characterized by Brunona Buchańska in her book Nowe Prądy. The inn was situated at the borders of Olszowice, Konary and Świątniki. The house of the innkeeper was not destroyed during the war, only in the times of People’s Republic of Poland (PRL) a GS shop was built on its place and it is functioning till today.
Jew Abraham lived in Rzeszotary, and in Rzeszotary Dolne the Rotter family, they survived the war thanks to the help of local inhabitants. Propination laws had a great history and tradition here. The inn was to be placed near the road from Świątniki to Wieliczka. Since the 17th c. mostly Jews were tenants here. The inn belonged to manorial farm.In the 19th c. there were 1228 dwellers, including 21 Jews.However, their names did not appear on the list of houses owners from the 19th c., for mostly they lived in court inns at the crossroads. In the 20th c. their presence was smaller, for many of them migrated to bigger centers.Actually, in the 20th c. only on the territory of Rzeszotary lived one family; Rotter. The inn building is preserved till today, currently it is a private house.
In Wrząsowice (Pokrzywnica) Jewish inn was run by the Schein family till 1943.It was also a shop, run by a Jew in the so called “Zielona” District.<
The beginnings of Świątniki Górne (once called Górki) can be traced back to the first half of the 11th century, and are connected with the establishment of Roman-Catholic bishopric in Kraków, originated by Bolesław Chrobry in the year 1000 on the Congress of Gniezno. Situated by the Hungarian route,it was undoubtedly a typical borough paying certain services to the ruler. Świątniki dwellers were delegated to service the Wawel Cathedral. Initially 12 peasants were placed there. According to 15th century documents the inhabitants of Świątniki were enjoying considerable privileges, because they were not paying the so called fee for the king, nor tithe. During centuries the village did not experience serfdom. Two legends are connected with the village. One says that Queen Jadwiga coming from Hungary to Kraków saw the city for the very first time from the mountain of Świątniki, and that a broken carriage was fixed by local blacksmiths. The second one says that the bishop of Kraków, Stanisław Szczepanowski ruled a border dispute between Świątniki and Siepraw, and on the spot that he pointed as the border a horse hit a rock with his hooves and a mark of the hoof was created on a steep, rocky hill. Further stories, also say that first citizens of Świątniki who were working in Wawel, apart from keeping guard of the Cathedral were performing other duties involved with metalwork and forging. Because Świątniki was performing services for the Wawel Cathedral, it was directly responsible to cathedral curators, who also cared for the development of already existing metalwork and forging industry.
In time, as the Cathedral developed, also other villagers were delegated to work there. The church duties involved cleaning (washing, scrubbing, sweeping), Świątniki dwellers were opening and closing the church, protecting the vault, ringing the bells (e.g. 12 people are needed to start Sigismund Bell), showing travelers round the graves. According to Metryka Józefińska (Lwów 1787) the duties of the inhabitants of Świątniki included attending to and guarding chapels and the vault – Wawel Klucznica, and showing visitors round the Wawel Cathedral. For years villagers from Świątniki we
With your financial contribution towards the development of a town description, a photo documentation or other activities, you will be awarded a donation certificate.