Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||strzeliński / Strehlen (before 1939)|
|Community:||Strzelin / Strehlen (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Strehlen [j.niemiecki]|
Strzelin is a town of Lower Silesia, situated 37 kilometers south of Wrocław, at the border covered with mixed forests Strzelińskie Hills. The Hills are a part of Sudeckie Przedgórze and Wrocław Plateau, both belonging geographically to Silesian Plain. They are built mostly of granite, which is still extracted in many places. The granite quarries in Strzelin are one of the largest in Europe. They are the providers of a very good rock material and are one of the major tourist attractions.
The area of the municipality is 171, 64 km2. The municipality has a farming and industrial character.
Jews lived in Strzelin already by the 14th century. Their presence in the town is confirmed by an account from 1336 . The first Jew whose name is known is Musko, who was mentioned in historical documents dated 21 February 1336. Three years later Pope Benedict XII ordered the church to force the Jews – Jordan and Eckhard from Strzelin and Sycha – the widow of a Jew by the name of Mucho, to testify in an inheritance case .
In the Middle Ages, Jewish inhabitants lived at Żydowska Street (Jewish St.), which had been mentioned in 1441 . The synagogue was situated at the same street and the oldest mention about is from 1439. There is no information about the local cemetery. The Jews from Strzelin were probably buried at the cemetery in Wrocław. At the end of the 15th century the Jews were banished from Strzelin, just like from the other towns of Lower Silesia.
The Jewish society revived only after the emancipation edict that entered into power in 1812. The number of Jews in Strzelin rose dynamically – from 86 people in 1845 to 163 in 1880.
In 1933 the Jewish society in Strzelin amounted to 36 people, including 17 members of the Kehilla’s Synagogue. In this period the first leader of the Kehilla was Max Prinz, the second – Alfred Schnell, the third – Ernst Levy. The representatives of the Kehilla were also Fritz Jacob and I. Pakula. In the Kehilla there was also the Funeral Fraternity Chewra Kadisza, presided by Dr. Gerstel. Four kids attended the religious school .
After Hitler’s rise to power the situation of Jews in Strzelin worsened significantly. Already in 1933 the public rights of the Jewish population started to be limited. The bill reorganizing the civil administration from 7 April 1933 eliminated Jews from the public administration. Similar restrictions were applied to the representatives of legal professions (lawyers, patent and tax officers) and then doctors and students . Moreover, the boycotts of Jewish companies, stores, merchandise as well as law and physician offices began. In 1935 the Nuremberg Laws took precedence. Their main purpose was to sanction legal discrimination and inequality based on the criteria of “blood and race.” On this basis, Jews were completely disavowed their rights . Representatives of Jewish society were excluded from economic life by the executive o
Strzelin was founded at the crossroads of trade routes from Wrocław to Kłodzko and from Brzeg to Świdnica. The valley of Oława river was a place where the passing merchants stayed for the night.
The first accounts of Strzelin are from 1228 and they refer to Radosław, the town’s Komes (administrative dignitary). The sources from 1245 mention the castellany in Strzelin, which suggest that the town was a center of the Piast Dynasty authority. In 1292 prince Bolko Świdnicki, called the Strict, had awarded Strzelin with city rights. This ruler had contributed to the great development of the town. Moreover, he surrounded it with a fortified wall made from local granite. In 1336 Bolko II Ziębicki was defeated by the Bohemian (Czech) army and the Ziębickie principality with Strzelin fell under the rule of the Bohemian king.
In the first half of the 15th century the Strzelin lands suffered greatly due to the Hussite Wars. This led to the economic weakening of the region. However the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century was a period of rapid development of the town – especially of shoemaking, dressmaking, drapery, brewing and metal processing industries. The extraction of granite was also a significant source of income.
In the 16th century the nobility in the town was already predominantly German, while the common people were Polish. The Jews also lived in the town, next to Germans and Poles. The economic and social flourishment of the town was halted by the Thirty Years War. The Strzelin land was the place of the confrontations among many foreign armies. The city was plundered by the Swedes as well as by the Imperial, Brandenburg and Saxon armies and the Polish mercenary cavalry – Lisowczycy.
In 1675 the last prince of the Dynasty of Piasts, Jerzy Wilhelm, died and the Legnicko-Brzeskie principality (including Strzelin) fell under the Imperial rule. In the 18th century the town was also an arena of the battles in the Austro-Prussian War. As a result, since 1761 Strzelin belonged to Prussia for almost 200 years.
In 1780 the town had 2,139 inhabitants. During the Napoleonic wars Strzelin lands were the arena of a great battle fought west of the town, next to the village of Szczawin. In 1813 the Russian army marched through the town. At this time the Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Prussian Kink Fr