Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||strzeliński / Strehlen (before 1939)|
|Community:||Strzelin / Strehlen (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Strehlen [j. niemiecki]|
Strzelin is a town of Lower Silesia, situated 37 kilometers south of Wrocław, at the border covered with mixed forests Strzelińskie Hills. The Hills are a part of Sudeckie Przedgórze and Wrocław Plateau, both belonging geographically to Silesian Plain. They are built mostly of granite, which is still extracted in many places. The granite quarries in Strzelin are one of the largest in Europe. They are the providers of a very good rock material and are one of the major tourist attractions.
The area of the municipality is 171, 64 km2. The municipality has a farming and industrial character.
Tamara Włodarczyk /
The first mentionof Jews in Strzelin dates back to 1336 roku. The name of the first known Strzelin Jews was Musko, who was mentioned in histrical documents dated 21st February 1336. Three years later, Pope Benedict XII church sextons to evict Jews, Jordan and Eckhard, out of Strzelina, as well as Sycha, the widow of Strzelin Jew Mucho, for giving evidence in an inheriance case.
In the Middle Ages, Jews lived on ul Żydowska (Jewish St.), which was mentioned first in 1441. The synagogue was situated on the same street, the first mention of that dating back to 1439. There is no information about a local cemetery. Strzelin Jews were probably buried in the cemetery in Wrocław. Jews were banished from Strzelin at the end of the 15th century, just as in the other towns of Dolny Śląsk (Lower Silesia).
The Jewish community revived only after a emancipation edict, dated11th March 1812 by Friedrich Wilhelm III. The number of Jews in Strzelin rose steadily, from 86 in 1845 to 163 in 1880 but, in the 20th century, that number clearly fell.
In 1933, the Jewish community of Strzelin numbered 36, of whom 17 were members of the synagogue congregation. Among theem were Max Prinz, Alfred Schnell and Ernst Levy. Members of the board included Fritz Jacob and I. Pakula. There was a Chevra Kadisha burial society chaired by Dr Gerstel. Four children received religious instruction.
Following Hitler’s rise to power, the situation for Jews in Strzelin worsened significantly. Some Strzelin Jews decided to emigrate. However those who remained, shared the fate of all the Jews of Dolny Śląsk. The first deportations from the Wrocław region began in 1940. Several Strzelin Jews were transported to Wrocław, and from there to temporary camps for Dolny Śląsk Jews. Hanna Holaender, on 30th August 1942, was transported to Theresienstadt during the Operation V deportations. Magda Schnell was transported to an unknown camp in the east on 3rd May1942.
The fate of some Strzelin Jews is known from German sources. Ilse Else Boehm was deported from Wrocław, on 13th April 1942, to the ghetto in Mińsk. Margaretha Bruck was deported from Berlin on 14th November 1942. Eugen Schnell, who had lived in Berlin, died in the B
Strzelin was founded at the crossroads of trade routes from Wrocław to Kłodzko and from Brzeg to Świdnica. The valley of Oława river was a place where the passing merchants stayed for the night.
The first accounts of Strzelin are from 1228 and they refer to Radosław, the town’s Komes (administrative dignitary). The sources from 1245 mention the castellany in Strzelin, which suggest that the town was a center of the Piast Dynasty authority. In 1292 prince Bolko Świdnicki, called the Strict, had awarded Strzelin with city rights. This ruler had contributed to the great development of the town. Moreover, he surrounded it with a fortified wall made from local granite. In 1336 Bolko II Ziębicki was defeated by the Bohemian (Czech) army and the Ziębickie principality with Strzelin fell under the rule of the Bohemian king.
In the first half of the 15th century the Strzelin lands suffered greatly due to the Hussite Wars. This led to the economic weakening of the region. However the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century was a period of rapid development of the town – especially of shoemaking, dressmaking, drapery, brewing and metal processing industries. The extraction of granite was also a significant source of income.
In the 16th century the nobility in the town was already predominantly German, while the common people were Polish. The Jews also lived in the town, next to Germans and Poles. The economic and social flourishment of the town was halted by the Thirty Years War. The Strzelin land was the place of the confrontations among many foreign armies. The city was plundered by the Swedes as well as by the Imperial, Brandenburg and Saxon armies and the Polish mercenary cavalry – Lisowczycy.
In 1675 the last prince of the Dynasty of Piasts, Jerzy Wilhelm, died and the Legnicko-Brzeskie principality (including Strzelin) fell under the Imperial rule. In the 18th century the town was also an arena of the battles in the Austro-Prussian War. As a result, since 1761 Strzelin belonged to Prussia for almost 200 years.
In 1780 the town had 2,139 inhabitants. During the Napoleonic wars Strzelin lands were the arena of a great battle fought west of the town, next to the village of Szczawin. In 1813 the Russian army marched through the town. At this time the Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Prussian Kink Fr