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Strzegom

Polska / dolnośląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:świdnicki / Schweidnitz (before 1939)
Community:Strzegom / Striegau (before 1939)
Other names:Striegau [j. niemiecki]
 
GPS:
50.9602° N / 16.3508° E
50°57'36" N / 16°21'02" E

Location

Tamara Włodarczyk

Strzegom is located at 16°20' E and 50°60' N. It lies in the northwest corner of the Sudeten Foreland, in the Strzegom Hills, which, together with the Niemczańsko-Strzelińskie Hills and the Ślęża Range, comprise a chain of elevations separating the rim of the Sudeten from the Silesian Lowlands.

In 2006 the population of Strzegom numbered 17,466 (of whom 8,385 were women and 9,081 men).

 

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History

Tamara Włodarczyk /

The first reference to the presence of Jews in Strzegom dates from 1350. They mostly lived around Kościelna Street, as well as between Wittiga and Nowa Streets. They had their own synagogue, most likely built in the first half of the 14th century. In the Middle Ages the Jewish population numbered approximately one hundred members, most of whom were involved in trade, crafts, or owned pawn shops.

Like other communities in the Świdnica Duchy (Dzierżoniów, Niemcza and Jawor), the Jewish Community in Strzegom was located in Świdnica Municipality. In 1370, Duchess Agnieszka ruled that the Świdnica Jewish cemetery would also serve the Jews in the other municipalities governed by Świdnica. A pogrom, in which 73 Jews were killed,  took place in Strzegom in 1401. For the slaughter the town had to pay 400 grzywnas (a unit of exchange) to the Czech king. Records state that in 1416 three Strzegom Jews, Jozil, son of Izrael, Izaak and Lazarus, lent 339 marks to the Wrocław Town Council.

In 1453, the Jews of Strzegom and several other towns in Lower Silesia were accused of alleged profanation of the Host, then arrested and imprisoned in Wrocław. Their trial ended with burning 41 Lower Silesian Jews at the stake at Solny Square in Wrocław. The Strzegom’s Jewish survivors were expelled from the town for good within the same year and their property was confiscated. From 1454 on, by an edict issued by Czech and Hungarian King Władysław Pogrobowiec, Jews were not allowed to stay in the town.

After the 1812 edict of emancipation, Jews returned to Strzegom. Itzig Feibel of Głogów was the first to settle there in 1812. In 1844, six Jewish families founded a community in Strzegom, which, in 1859, gained the status of a branch of the Świdnica Jewish community. Its first board had two members: H. Stroh and A. Hellinger. Wiesler from Jawor was the first cantor, then he was replaced by W. D. Loewi from Śmigiel, Moses Israel Lichtenstein from Wylatowo, Michael Laski from Solec Kujawski, Hirsch Kajet from Leszno, Izaak W. Ascher from Wołów, A Jakobius, Moritz Blachman, Izaak Nachschoen from Racibórz, M. Rosenau from Syców, Alfred Blumenfeld from Kargowa, and Berthold Heidenfeld.

In 1933, the Synagogue C

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Local history

Tamara Włodarczyk

The first to build a settlement in the Strzegomka river catchment area were members of the Slavic tribe, Ślężanie. During the Polish-Czech wars of 1038-1137, its location on trade routes and its ability to serve as a fortress made the town important. Strzegom is first mentioned in a papal bull issued by Hadrian IV in 1155 in Rome. The bishop of Wrocław consecrated Strzegom‘s first church in 1149. In 1241 the town was burned down by Tartars, but Anna, Henryk Pobożny’s widow, placed the town under German law and attracted settlers to speed up its reconstruction. In 1291 Strzegom lay within the newly formed Świdnica-Jawor Principality ruled by Bolko I. On his orders, a defensive wall was erected around the town in 1291-1299. The first school opened in 1339. The town’s economy continued to develop, and in 1346 it already had nine guilds.

Strzegom came to be ruled by the Habsburgs in 1526. The Renaissance was a period of prosperity and development for it. But in the wake of the 30-Year-War, it lay in ruins and lost its privileges; the castle was destroyed and became the property of the town, while the population shrank from 3,000 to a mere 400.

In 1742 Silesia was taken over by Prussia, and Strzegom celebrated the 500th anniversary of being awarded town privileges. With the restoration of religious freedom, in the same year the Protestants erected a church. On 4.6.1745 Frederick II, King of Prussia, defeated Austria in a battle on the outskirts of town, as it attempted to win back Silesia.

The 19th century was a period of renewed development and of rapid industrialization. In 1816 Strzegom became the county seat. The years 1870-1914 represented the finest period in the town’s history as new factories and public buildings were erected and the masonry industry developed. The transportation infrastructure (rail connections to Ząbkowice Śląskie and Legnica in 1856, Bolków in 1890 and Malczyce in 1895) boosted economic growth. In 1905 the population of Strzegom was 13,427, almost exclusively Germans. World War I, followed by an economic weakening of Germany, interrupted the town’s development. In 1932 the town lost its position of county seat and became part of Świdnica county.

The Soviet army entered Strzegom late, on 7.5.1945, after fierce battles that ruine

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