Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||świdnicki / Schweidnitz (before 1939)|
|Community:||Strzegom / Striegau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Striegau [j. niemiecki]|
Strzegom is located at 16°20' E and 50°60' N. It lies in the northwest corner of the Sudeten Foreland, in the Strzegom Hills, which, together with the Niemczańsko-Strzelińskie Hills and the Ślęża Range, comprise a chain of elevations separating the rim of the Sudeten from the Silesian Lowlands.
In 2006 the population of Strzegom numbered 17,466 (of whom 8,385 were women and 9,081 men).
The first mention of the presence of Jews in Strzegom was made in 1350. They tended to live around Kościelna Street, as well as between Wittiga and Nowa Streets. They had their own synagogue, most likely built in the first half of the 14th century. In the Middle Ages the Jewish population numbered around 100, and most of them were employed in commerce, crafts and pawn shops.
The Jewish Community in Strzegom, like other communities in the Świdnica Principality (Dzierżoniów, Niemcza and Jawor) was located in the Świdnica municipality. In 1370, Princess Agnieszka ruled that the Świdnica Jewish cemetery would also serve the Jews in the other municipalities governed by Świdnica. A pogrom took place in 1401 in Strzegom, in which 73 Jews were killed. The king demanded that the town pay him for this slaughter. Documents note that in 1416 three Strzegom Jews, Jozil son of Izrael, Izaak and Lazarus, lent the Wrocław Town Council 339 marks.
In 1453 the Jews of Strzegom and several other towns in Lower Silesia were accused of profaning the Host, arrested and imprisoned in Wrocław. Their trial ended with the burning at the stake of 41 Lower Silesian Jews in Solny Square in Wrocław. Strzegom’s remaining Jewish population was definitively chased out of the town in the course of the year and their property was confiscated. From 1454, by an edict of King Władysław Pogrobowiec, Jews were not allowed to stay in the town. A year later, the synagogue was transformed into the Catholic Church of St. Barbara. The church’s activities are mentioned in a 1463 document by the bishop of Wrocław.
After the 1812 edict of emancipation, Jews returned to Strzegom. Itzig Feibel from Głogów was the first to settle there in 1812.
In 1814 and 1818 the authorities issued decrees ordering the Jews to construct their own cemeteries close to their places of residence. The Strzegom cemetery began to be used on 15.5.1815. The Jews did not build their own synagogue, but held prayer services in a rented hall. In 1842 the house of prayer was led by M. Naphtali and maintained by Pinkus Schlochow; in 1846 a new house of prayer was consecrated.
In 1844 six Jewish families founded a community in Strzegom, which in 1859 gained the status of a branch of the Świdnica Jewish community. Its founding council was made up of H. Stroh and A. He
The first to build a settlement in the Strzegomka river catchment area were members of the Slavic tribe, Ślężanie. During the Polish-Czech wars of 1038-1137, its location on trade routes and its ability to serve as a fortress made the town important. Strzegom is first mentioned in a papal bull issued by Hadrian IV in 1155 in Rome. The bishop of Wrocław consecrated Strzegom‘s first church in 1149. In 1241 the town was burned down by Tartars, but Anna, Henryk Pobożny’s widow, placed the town under German law and attracted settlers to speed up its reconstruction. In 1291 Strzegom lay within the newly formed Świdnica-Jawor Principality ruled by Bolko I. On his orders, a defensive wall was erected around the town in 1291-1299. The first school opened in 1339. The town’s economy continued to develop, and in 1346 it already had nine guilds.
Strzegom came to be ruled by the Habsburgs in 1526. The Renaissance was a period of prosperity and development for it. But in the wake of the 30-Year-War, it lay in ruins and lost its privileges; the castle was destroyed and became the property of the town, while the population shrank from 3,000 to a mere 400.
In 1742 Silesia was taken over by Prussia, and Strzegom celebrated the 500th anniversary of being awarded town privileges. With the restoration of religious freedom, in the same year the Protestants erected a church. On 4.6.1745 Frederick II, King of Prussia, defeated Austria in a battle on the outskirts of town, as it attempted to win back Silesia.
The 19th century was a period of renewed development and of rapid industrialization. In 1816 Strzegom became the county seat. The years 1870-1914 represented the finest period in the town’s history as new factories and public buildings were erected and the masonry industry developed. The transportation infrastructure (rail connections to Ząbkowice Śląskie and Legnica in 1856, Bolków in 1890 and Malczyce in 1895) boosted economic growth. In 1905 the population of Strzegom was 13,427, almost exclusively Germans. World War I, followed by an economic weakening of Germany, interrupted the town’s development. In 1932 the town lost its position of county seat and became part of Świdnica county.
The Soviet army entered Strzegom late, on 7.5.1945, after fierce battles that ruine