Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||sochaczewski / sochaczewski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Sochaczew / Sochaczew (before 1939)|
|Other names:||סאכאטשעוו [j. jidysz]; סוכצ'ב [j. hebrajski]; Сохачев [j. rosyjski]|
Sochaczew – a city with county rights in central Poland, in the Mazowieckie Province. It lies 55 km west of Warsaw, by the Bzura River.
Tomasz Kawski /
Jewish presence in Sochaczew dates back to the 15th century. In the years 1426-1455, the duke of Mazowsze Władysław issued to the Jews of the Sochaczew region a privilege which regulated the legal way of dealing with Christian land owners who were in debt to Jews. It is possible that Jews lived exclusively in the town at that time. They appear in the sources as early as 1463, when a Jewish doctor named Feliks is reported to live and work there. In 1507, the Jews of Sochaczew paid 6 zlotys of coronation tax. The information on Mojżesz and Michał, who were tax collectors in Sochaczew and Kłodawa, dates back to the beginning of the 16th century.
In the second half of the 16th century, anti-Jewish riot became more frequent in Mazowsze. With the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation in the background, many accusations against Jews were spread. One of charges considered desecration of the Host and pressing blood out of it. A case of this kind ended up in Płock. In April 1556, a group of townsmen from Sochaczew accused the local Jews that they had bought a consecrated host from Dorota Łazęcka and pressed blood from it. The district governor of Sochaczew, Stanisław Borek from Trzecieniec, punished Dorota Łazęcka and the rabbi of Sochaczew Beniasz with death penalty, wich was carried out on 23 April 1556. The remaining three accused Jews were taken to the provincial governor of Rawa Andrzej Sierpski and after being subjected to torture, they confessed. On 1 June 1556, they were hanged on the hooks at the three gates to Płock. The Jews of Płock feared similar incidents and asked King Zygmunt August to issue a safe conduct for them and help establishing the truth. The king gave his protection to all Jews in Rzeczpospolita, especially those in Płock, until the case was resolved. The safe conduct gave them right to trade and prove their innocence. After half a year (on 14 January 1557), Zygmunt August ordered to take the victims of the hooks and allowed the families to bury them.
In 1564 and 1570, the Jews owned 7 houses, including a synagogue. The poll tax was paid by 24 Jews in 1578. The local municipality was growing fast. In 1599, already 20 houses belonged to Jews. Addiionaly, sixteen tax collectors lived there. In 1602, the Jews had also a hospital, a house of prayer, and the number of tax collectors dropped to 4.
The castellan’s town was first mentioned in 1138. Bolesław Krzywousty, the King of Poland, died here. Sochaczew was a very important fortified town of Masovia at that time.
In 1286 it was besieged during the Lithuanian invasion. In 1294 the Duke Kazimierz II died in the battle against the Lithuanians here. From the 14th to 15th century the town seated the Dukes of Masovia. In 1368 Sochaczew obtained its town charter.
In 1410 the Polish Army heading for the Battle of Grunwald against Teutonic Knights crossed Sochaczew. In 1476 Sochaczew along with Masovia joined The Crown. In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a very important centre of commerce and craft.
In the mid-16th century Sochaczew was destroyed by the Swede and Rakoczy’s Army.
Since 1795 Sochaczew was under Prussian rule, since 1807 it transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw and since 1815, it belonged to the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland). During World War I , from December 1914 to July 1915 a German-Russian front line crossed Sochaczew. The town was deserted by its inhabitants and seriously damaged at that time.
During World War II, in September 1939, there was a lot of heavy fighting between the Polish and German Armies near Sochaczew. It was the final stage of the battle of Bzura.
Polish guerrilla groups were active near Sochaczew at that time. In January 1945 Sochaczew was liberated by the Soviet Army.