Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (before 1939)|
|County:||cieszyński / cieszyński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Skoczów / Skoczów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Skotschau[j. niemiecki]|
Skoczów is a town that lies in Cieszyn County in Silesia. There are 15,000 inhabitants, according to data from 1998. It is situated in Silesian Foothills, on both banks of the Vistula.
The first mention of a Jewish presence in Skoczów dates back to the turn of the 18th century Historical documents from around 1700 mention a Jakub Abraham Singer who purchased a "free house", near Skoczów castle, from Karol Sobek.
According to a list of Skochów residents from 1737, a "tolerance tax" was paid by Jakub Singer, Izrael Lobel, Jakub Lobel and Aaron Jakub. There were 27 Jews in the city in 1752. The majority of them were small traders or distillers. Józef Izaak leased the imperial distillery, while Jakub Salomon was a ritual slaughterer. The Jews Skoczów came under the perview of theJewish Community Council in Cieszyn and buried their dead in the cemetery there. Their prayerhouse was in a private home located on ul Wałowej.
A synagogue was built in 1853. In 1862, the Jews of Skoczów formed a religious society, operating as part of the Cieszyn Jewish Communiy Council under the supervision of the district rabbi (who, from 1858, was Dr Simon Friedmann).
In 1890, there were 586 Jews in the Skoczów districty, 266 of them living the the city itself[1.1]. Within the city, they were concentrated around ul Bielskiej, ul Ustrońskiej, ul Menniczej, ul Mickiewicza and the Market Square Rynku. A Jewish cemetery was opened in 1891 in Wilamowicech (now a part of Skoczów).
A independent Jewish Community Council was established in Skoczów on 21st December 1892. Its committee comprised Dawid Spitzer, Heinrich Tramer, Leopold Lindner, Wilhelm Spitzer and Dr Otto Hoffenreich. The first rabbi, Dr Lieber Dobschütz was appointed on 19th July1893. In 1914 there were 600 Jews in Skoczów, being 15% of the overall residents there. The community had a strong Germanic character and were referred to as "German Jews"[1.1].
The First World War ended with the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. In 1920, Śląsk Cieszyn was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia. Due to those changes, on 11th November 1918, Skoczów became part of newly independent Poland. As the result of an inflow of Jews from Galicia, the community l
In this place in the 8th-9th centuries there was already a grad (Slavic settlement) inhabited by the tribe of Golęszyce. According to legends, Skoczów was founded in 917. However, the oldest written note dates back to 1232. By 1327 Skoczów was granted a charter and it developed as an agricultural – craft – trade settlement. The town obtained much income from trade due to a favorable location of the town by the salt route from Cracow to Morawy.
From the end of the 13th century Skoczów was under the Czech rule.
During the World War II the town was seriously damaged during fights in winter 1945 when Skoczów was liberated by the Soviet Army. 65% of buildings were damaged then.
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