Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (before 1939)|
|County:||cieszyński / cieszyński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Skoczów / Skoczów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Skotschau[j. niemiecki]|
Skoczów is a town that lies in Cieszyn County in Silesia. There are 15,000 inhabitants, according to data from 1998. It is situated in Silesian Foothills, on both banks of the Vistula.
Adam Marczewski /
The first mention of a Jewish presence in Skoczowo dates back to the 17th and 18th centuries. In the historical documents from 1700, there are references about Jakub Abraham Siger who bought "a free house", situated near the Skoczowo's castle, from from Karol Sobka .
According to the 1737 census, Jakub Singer, Izrael Lobel, Jakub Lobel and Aaron Jakub paid "a tolerance tax" in Skoczowo. In 1752, twenty seven Jews loved in Skoczowo. Most of them were petty traders and distillers. Józef Izaak was a tenant of the Imperial distillery and Jakub Salomon was a ritual slaughterer. The Jews from Skoczowo came under the Jewish community in Cieszyn, which is where they aslo buried their dead. The house of prayer was in a private building on ul Wałowa.
In 1853, a synagogue was built. In 1862, Jews created the Jewish religious organisation as the part of Jewish community in Cieszyn, with the district rabbi in charge (from 1858, Simon Friedman performed this function).
In 1890, 586 Jews lived in the Skoczewo district and 266 Jews lived in the town itself. In Skoczewo, they were concentrated mainly along the market and such streets as Bielska, Ustrońska, Mennicza and Mickiewicza. In 1891, a Jewish cemetery was opened in Wilamowice (now, a part of Skoczew).
On 21st December 1892, an independent Jewish Community Council was created with Dawid Spitzer, Heinrich Tramer, Leopold Linder, Wilhelm Spitzer and Dr Otto Hoffenreich as its trustees. On 19th July 1893, Dr Lieber Dobschutz was appointed as the first rabbi. In 1914, around 600 Jews lived in Skoczowo, being 15% of all the inhabitants. The community was strongly Germanized and was treated as "Germans of the Mosaic faith".
World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 and with the division, in 1920, of Śląsk Cieszyński between Poland and Czechoslovakia. Because of an influx of Jews from Galicia, the small community lost its Germanized character and Zionist attitudes appeared.
In 1928, the first burial association, the Chevra Kadisha, was created. In 1931, 74 Jews lived in the town, being 1.7% of all inhabitants. The Spitzer family owned a tannery, the Heilpern brothers owned the Textile Plants and the Schanzer brothers had the first Factory of Concrete Products and an Artificial Stone. Klemens Aperman, Neige
In this place in the 8th-9th centuries there was already a grad (Slavic settlement) inhabited by the tribe of Golęszyce. According to legends, Skoczów was founded in 917. However, the oldest written note dates back to 1232. By 1327 Skoczów was granted a charter and it developed as an agricultural – craft – trade settlement. The town obtained much income from trade due to a favorable location of the town by the salt route from Cracow to Morawy.
From the end of the 13th century Skoczów was under the Czech rule.
During the World War II the town was seriously damaged during fights in winter 1945 when Skoczów was liberated by the Soviet Army. 65% of buildings were damaged then.
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