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Siedlce

Polska / mazowieckie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:mazowieckie / lubelskie (before 1939)
County:Siedlce / siedlecki (before 1939)
Community:Siedlce / (before 1939)
Other names:Shedlitz שעדלעץ / שעדליץ [jidysz]
Sedlets Седльце / Седлец [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
52.1676° N / 22.2901° E
52°10'03" N / 22°17'24" E

Location

Izrael badacz

Siedlce is the capital of Siedlce County, Masovian Voivodeship, with 77.100 inhabitants(as of 2008).

It is situated on Siedlce Upland, on the Muchawka River (left-bank tributary of the Liwiec river).

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History

Przemysław Maksymiuk

Five Jewish friends share a park bench by the side of a street in Siedlce | unknown

First Jews started to settle in Siedlce in the middle of the 16th century. A synagogue was built in 1794. 3723 Jews lived in Siedlce in 1839, which made up 71% of the whole population and in 1858 there were already as many as 5153 Jews in the town. In 1859, a new synagogue was erected. In 1890, a huge Jewish hospital was opened. Two Jewish newspapers were published : “Szedlesker Wochnblat” and "Dos Szedlesker Lebn".

During the 1905-1907 revolution in Siedlce, which had been annexed by Russians, a bloody pacification action of the Jewish people was carried out by the troops of the Russian Empire army. Before this, the secret political police Okhrana had failed to provoke the Polish community of Siedlce to attack the Jews who were accused of some revolutionary activity that was detrimental to the state.

During the 1906 pacification action that lasted for a few days, between 26 (according to the police) to 100 (according to unofficial sources) people were killed, several dozen were wounded and several hundred arrested. Many families were left with no roof over their heads. About 40 shops and many flats were plundered. As the Jewish historian, I. Kaspi wrote, there were signs of sympathy coming from everywhere right after the pogrom. Especially warm was the reaction of the Polish society and press. All newspapers called for fund raising and some of them even managed to raise quite big amounts of money. In the Russian governmental press an announcement was published that expressed thanks from the Warsaw governor Skałon to lieutenant colonel Tichonovsky, the commander of the pacification action.

In 1921, there were 2 synagogues, 3 houses of prayer and 20 Hasidic prayer facilities in the city.

In the interwar period, 14 685 Jews lived in Siedlce in 1921, constituting 48% of all inhabitants.

During World War II, Siedlce was taken by the German army in September 1939. In the night from 24 to 25 December 1939, the Germans burnt the synagogue. In 1940, Jews from Kalisz were deported to Siedlce. In August 1941, the Germans established a ghetto where they locked over twelve thousand Jews.

In August 1942, the Germans moved about ten thousand Jews to the extermination camp in Treblinka and the rest of them were left at the forced labor camps. All Jews had been executed at the local Jewish cemetery until

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Local history

Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN

Osada z ok. IX–X w.; prawa miejskie 1547; XVI–XVII w. lokalny ośrodek rzemieślniczo–handlowy; od XVI w. duże skupisko Żydów (w XVIII w. siedziba rabina Meira); od poł. XVII w. rezydencja Czartoryskich, 1775–98 — A. Ogińskiej (rozbudowała Siedlce i uczyniła z nich ośrodek życia towarzyskiego i kulturalnego). Od 1795 w zaborze austr. (siedziba cyrkułu); od 1809 w Księstwie Warszawskim (siedziba departamentu), od 1815 w zaborze rosyjskim (Królestwo Polskie); 1815–37 siedziba woj. podlaskiego, 1837–44 i 1867–1912 stolica guberni, 1845–67 siedziba powiatu. W 2. poł. XIX w. rozwój przemysłu przetwórczo-rolnego, duży garnizon wojsk.; ośrodek szkolnictwa średniego i kult. Podlasia; od 1866 połączenie kol. (węzeł kol.); 1905–07 manifestacje robotników i strajk szkolny; od 1924 siedziba biskupstwa podlaskiego. W IX–X 1939 działalność pol. oddziału partyzanckiego (dca por. J. Brückner-Rylski); w czasie okupacji niem.: 1941–44 obóz jeńców wojennych, gł. sowieckich (przeciętnie 5–20 tys. osób, zginęło 9–12 tys.), 4 obozy pracy przymusowej (łącznie ponad 40 tys. osób); 1941–42 getto (ponad 12 tys. osób, ok. 10 tys. wywieziono do ośrodka zagłady w Treblince, pozostałych rozstrzelano); ośrodek konspiracji AK, BCh (liczne akcje dywersyjno-sabotażowe, m.in. 1943 na Komunalną Kasę Oszczędności) i NSZ; 31VII 1944 Siedlce wyzwolone przez 22. pułk piechoty 9. dywizji piechoty AK; 4–5 X 1944 masowe aresztowania przez NKWD i UB członków pol. organizacji niepodległościowych (osadzeni w obozie w Siedlcach, w końcu 1944 wywiezieni w głąb ZSRR); 1945–46 obóz odosobnienia dla niem. ludności cyw. w Polsce; 1944–53 rejon działalności organizacji antykomunist., m.in. Delegatury Sił Zbrojnych, WiN, NSZ. W 1912–75 i od 1999 siedziba powiatu; 1975–98 miasto wojew.; przyłączono okoliczne miejscowości, m.in.: Golice, Strzałę, Żelków-Kolonię.

Treść hasła została przygotowana na podstawie materiałów źródłowych PWN.

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