Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / lubelskie (before 1939)|
|County:||Siedlce / siedlecki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Siedlce / Siedlce (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Shedlits [j. jidysz]; שעדליץ [j. jidysz]; Седлец [j. rosyjski]|
Siedlce is the capital of Siedlce County, Masovian Voivodeship, with 77.100 inhabitants(as of 2008).
It is situated on Siedlce Upland, on the Muchawka River (left-bank tributary of the Liwiec river).
First Jews started to settle in Siedlce in the middle of the 16th century. A synagogue was built in 1794. 3723 Jews lived in Siedlce in 1839, which made up 71% of the whole population and in 1858 there were already as many as 5153 Jews in the town. In 1859, a new synagogue was erected. In 1890, a huge Jewish hospital was opened. Two Jewish newspapers were published : “Szedlesker Wochnblat” and "Dos Szedlesker Lebn".
During the 1905-1907 revolution in Siedlce, which had been annexed by Russians, a bloody pacification action of the Jewish people was carried out by the troops of the Russian Empire army. Before this, the secret political police Okhrana had failed to provoke the Polish community of Siedlce to attack the Jews who were accused of some revolutionary activity that was detrimental to the state.
During the 1906 pacification action that lasted for a few days, between 26 (according to the police) to 100 (according to unofficial sources) people were killed, several dozen were wounded and several hundred arrested. Many families were left with no roof over their heads. About 40 shops and many flats were plundered. As the Jewish historian, I. Kaspi wrote, there were signs of sympathy coming from everywhere right after the pogrom. Especially warm was the reaction of the Polish society and press. All newspapers called for fund raising and some of them even managed to raise quite big amounts of money. In the Russian governmental press an announcement was published that expressed thanks from the Warsaw governor Skałon to lieutenant colonel Tichonovsky, the commander of the pacification action.
In 1921, there were 2 synagogues, 3 houses of prayer and 20 Hasidic prayer facilities in the city.
In the interwar period, 14 685 Jews lived in Siedlce in 1921, constituting 48% of all inhabitants.
During World War II, Siedlce was taken by the German army in September 1939. In the night from 24 to 25 December 1939, the Germans burnt the synagogue. In 1940, Jews from Kalisz were deported to Siedlce. In August 1941, the Germans established a ghetto where they locked over twelve thousand Jews.
In August 1942, the Germans moved about ten thousand Jews to the extermination camp in Treblinka and the rest of them were left at the forced labor camps. All Jews had been executed at the local Jewish cemetery until
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN /
Settlement in Siedlce dates back to the 9th-10th centuries. The town was granted town privileges in 1547, and soon developed into a local artisan and trade center. During the sixteenth century, a large Jewish population thrived in the town. In the 18th century, it was the seat of the famed Rabbi Meir.
Siedlce was the residence of the Czartoryski family beginning in the 17th century and of Princess Aleksandra Ogińska in 1775-98. Princess Ogińska redeveloped Siedlce and turned it into a vibrant center of social and cultural life. The town was under Austrian rule after the partitions of 1795, and it became the center of an administrative unit. The town became a part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1809 and was a department capital. Then, in 1815, it became part of the Russian annexation of Congress Poland. In the years 1815-37, it was the seat of the Podlachia Voivodeship, it was a Governorate capital in 1837–44 and 1867–1912, and it served as a seat of county authorities in 1845–67.
In the second half of the 19th century, its food processing industry and agricultural sector rapidly developed. A large military garrison functioned in the town. The town was additionally home to a secondary school and was a cultural center of Podlachia. Siedlce received a railway connection in 1866 and served as a rail junction. Workers' protests and a school strike took place in 1905-07. The town also became the seat of the Podlachia Bishopric in 1924.
A partisan division commanded by Lt. J. Brückner-Rylski was active in Siedlce from September-October 1939. During Nazi occupation between 1941 and 1944, the town was the site of a camp for (primarily Soviet) prisoners of war. The camp held, at a given time, between five and twenty thousand