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Summary

Province:inne / wołyńskie (before 1939)
County:Тернопільська область [obwód tarnopolski]/Шумський район [rejon szumski] / krzemieniecki (before 1939)
Community: / Szumsk (before 1939)
Other names:Шумськ [j.ukraiński],שומסק [j.jidysz/ j.hebrajski]
 
GPS:
50.1188° N / 26.1227° E
50°07'07" N / 26°07'21" E

History

Krzysztof Bielawski /

The beginning of the Jewish settlement in Szumsk goes back to the 18th century. In 1745 one of the Jewish entrepreneur established a brickyard as well as a house of religious studies,  a mikveh and some shops for rent. The Jewish population of Szumsk in 1897  numbered 1962, which constituted 86.9% of the total town’s population . In the census from 1921 as many as 1717 residents of Szumsk declared Jewish origin.

In the fall of 1939 there was an influx of Jewish fugitives from Poland. Most of them were deported by the Soviets them deep to the USRR in 1940. The Jewish population exceeded 2000 in the middle of 1941.

Following  the German invasion of the USRR a few Jewish families fled to the East, but most Jews stayed in the town. Szumsk  was occupied by Wehrmacht on  July 2, 1941. Until August the town was under German military command. Beginning from September 1941  the town was administered by the German civil authorities.  In 1941 Szumsk became part of the Krzemieniec Commissariat, the Wołyń-Podole General District, the  Reichskommissariat  Ukraine, the general commissioner being Mueller. The Ukrainian County Council and a police station were established in Szumsk. The police service was subordinate to the German gendarmerie.

Following the Nazi seizure of Szumsk, the Ukrainian anti-Semitic troops organized a pogrom against Jews as a result of which some Jewish residents were killed and their houses were looted. During summer and fall of 1941 the German authorities took up a number of actions against Jews, who had to wear the star of David and to give away gold and valuables. Every day they would be sent to work outside the ghetto. Jews were forbidden to leave the town. Their possessions had been taken away and they were  beaten by the Ukrainian police. The Judenrat was established in Szumsk. The president of the council was Wisler, a fugitive from Katowice. The purpose of establishing the Judenrat was to ensure that German orders and regulations were implemented. On March 12, 1942, the Jews from Szumsk and the local area  - about 2500 of people in total – were confined  in the ghetto. At the same time the Nazis established the Jewish police, made of 15-20 people, who reported to Akerman.

The ghetto existed for 5 months. On the night of August 8, 1942, the area of a&

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Landsmanshaft

MartaD.

  • Former Residents of Szumsk in Israel (Izrael) – ziomkostwo, które wydało księgę pamięci poświęconą społeczności żydowskiej w Szumsku pt. Shumsk: Sefer zikaron le-kedoshei Shumsk she-nispu be-shoat ha-natsim bi-shenat 1942, red. H. Rabin, Tel Awiw 1968. Wersję oryginalną pod hasłem „Shimsk”, zawierającą teksty w językach hebrajskim i jidysz, udostępnia [dostęp: 30.08.2013]. Częściowe tłumaczenie na język angielski dostępne jest na stronach programu  [dostęp: 30.08.2013].

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