Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||legionowski / pułtuski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Serock / Serock (before 1939)|
|Other names:||סעראצק [j. jidysz]; סרוצק [j. hebrajski]; Сероцк [j. rosyjski]|
Serock is a town in Legionowo County, Masovian Voivodeship, with 3652 inhabitants (as of 2008).
It is located on the borderline of the Valley of Warsaw and Ciechanów Upland where the Bug and the Narew River meet.
Jews came to Serock in the 13th century and from the very beginning they belonged to the Nasielsk kehilla. In 1781 seven Jewish families lived in town. They earned their living by leasing taverns and distilleries. At the time of the Duchy of Warsaw, fortification works, which involved numerous workers and engineers, contributed to the influx of Jewish tradesmen and lessees of taverns. Others earned their living by providing supplies to the French army that was stationed in Masovia. Some Jews dealt with craft. In 1830, out of 69 craftsmen living in Serock, 16 were Jewish (23%). These mainly included tailors (six of them – Szlama Zendlowicz, Lewek Kotek, Chaim Krawiec, Szulim Szusmacher, Abraham Szmulowicz, Judka Zelkowicz), bakers (four of them – Lewek Piekarz, Herszek Leyzerowicz, Lejbka Leyzerowicz, Zelek Cukier), groats makers (three of them – Jankiel Szlamowicz, Icek Boruchowicz, Josek Wielka Broda), a hat-maker (Abraham Peysakowicz), a butcher (Mordka Rzeźnikier) and a tanner (Moszek Nasielski). There were no Jews among the Serock shoemakers, potters, millers, blacksmiths and fishermen. Some merchants had profits from the distribution of tobacco. In 1830 these included Josek Kronenberg and Chaim Cukier.
Jews living in Serock were also interested in industry. Chaim Tykociner ran a paving company. He won a tender for paving the marketplace and the following streets in Serock: Zakroczymska, Nasielska and Farna. In 1841 a famous businessman, Mojżesz Kohn (Maurycy Koniar), became a shareholder in the Serock foundry.
In 1911 Janek Nowomiński from Pułtusk established a big lumber mill in Serock; it employed six workers. Some Serock Jews started to produce harnesses and parts for mills. The Serock Jews made their first attempts to break away from the Nasielsk kehilla in the beginning of the 19th century. They appointed their own rabbi. In 1816 this post was held by the 40-year old Abraham Jankielowicz from Konstantynów Nowy. In the 1820s Jews from Popów and its neighborhood were incorporated into the Jewish community in Serock.
In the second half of the 19th century Hasids started to play a more and more important role in the life of the local community. The Serock rabbi, Chenoch Zandel Grodziński, who in the 1870s settled in Pułtusk, opposed them. Josef Loewentsein from Zaklików became his successor; he enjoyed
A document from 1065 mentions a stronghold located in the place of today’s Serock. Its suburbia soon developed into a significant riverside marketplace, thanks to its location on the trade route leading along the Bug River from Masovia to Ruthenia. The inhabitants of Serock dealt with farming, fishing, rafting and water transport. In 1417 this duke’s market settlement was granted town charter under Chelmno (Kulm) Law. The location privilege was expanded by Duke Janusz I of Masovia between 1423 and 1425. There were scales, a bath house and a cloth cutting place in Serock.
In the 16th century Serock was a populous and wealthy Masovian town. It consisted of 40 lans (Polish unit of land measurement) of land. There were ten slaughterhouses and two water mills. In 1564 there were 56 craftsmen, who were exempted from rent and 30 fishermen in the town. At that time 264 houses could be found in Serock. Local law courts and land tribunals were held in town. In 1567 King Zygmunt August confirmed the town and guild privileges. In 1572 the town was depopulated after a plague which lasted several months. Serock regained its former significance quite quickly. The number of lans in town increased to 43 while the number of mills – to three. Three fairs took place per year and a market every week.
During the Polish-Swedish War (1655 – 1660), the town was destroyed. In the second half of the 17th century and in the subsequent century, Serock was a poor and depopulated town. In 1660 all town lans (38) were empty. In 1662 only 66 people lived in Serock. In 1797 there were 77 houses. Because of the town’s location in a region which was strategically important to the defense of Warsaw, in 1794, 1809 and 1831, Serock was within the range of fights for the capital. The establishment of a farming tools factory in 1845 and of other companies in the subsequent years contributed to the development of the town. Fairs that took place four times a year and a weekly market were important factors that influenced local economy.
Before the outbreak of World War II, there were four industrial factories and around 100 workshops in Serock. Nowadays, the town plays the role of the local centre of trade, production and administration.
Geography and administration
Until the 18th century – Kingdom of Poland
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