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Sanok

Polska / podkarpackie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:podkarpackie / lwowskie (before 1939)
County:sanocki / sanocki (before 1939)
Community:Sanok / Sanok (before 1939)
Other names:סאנוק [j. hebrajski]; סאָניק [j. jidysz]; Sanocum [j. niemiecki]
 
GPS:
49.5549° N / 22.2063° E
49°33'17" N / 22°12'22" E

Location

marta michalska

Sanok – miasto położone w południowo-wschodniej Polsce, w województwie podkarpackim, w powiecie sanockim. Odległe 76 km na południowy wschód od Rzeszowa, 372 km na południowy wschód od Warszawy. Leży w dolinie Sanu.

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History

Blanka Jagodzińska

Tereny byłego getta w Sanoku (ok. 1948) | nieznany

The first information about the Jews in Sanok comes from the times of King Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir the Great), who reigned from 1333 to 1370. It has not been confirmed, however, whether the Jews lived there at that time, or just resided there intermittently. Jewish names appear on the lists of craftsmen from 1514. Tax registers from 1567 mention only one Jewish family living in Sanok, but three years later 17 Jewish families were mentioned. At that time, a total of 200 families lived in the town. .

In 1676, the Bishop of Przemyśl, Stanisław Sosnowski, complained about village. He complained that the mayor and councilors of Sanok had allowed the Jews to buy houses belonging to Catholics, in the town centre, that the Jews had carried on with their business during Catholic celebrations, and that the Jews could sell alcohol with no restrictions. It is known that in the 2nd half of the 17th century, the selling of beer and stronger alcohol was controlled by Aron and his son-in-law.

At the end of the 16th century, the community came into being, in the form of a small auxiliary kehilla. This kehilla was subordinated to the kahal in Lesko. The Synagogue in Sanok was mentioned for the first time in 1697. In 1685, Aron Izraelowicz held the post of shkolnik in the synagogue (Pol. szkolnik, Heb. shamesh – a man calling for prayer). In 1697, the shkolnik was Jacob and in 1703, it was Haim, a textile merchant.

After a fire had destroyed the old synagogue in 1718, the Jews from Sanok were granted permission from the Bishop of Przemyśl to build a new one. The new synagogue was erected two years later. This permission was reassured to the Jews of Sanok in the privilege granted on 20 June 1720 by King August II Mocny (Augustus II the Strong).

King August II Mocny granted the Jews a charter, which allowed them to build stalls, shops, and craft workshops at the side of their houses. They were also allowed to build breweries, malt-houses for brewing beer, liquor, and alcohol. The charter also granted them the right to sell goods at their stalls after a proper fee was paid to the royal treasury. They were also allowed to have a cemetery outside the boundaries of the town. They could work as weavers after paying a fee to the local castle. In the middle of the 18th century, the brewery in the local to

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Local history

a.orzechowska

Rynek w Sanoku, 1930 | nieznany

The stronghold in Sanok, which dates back most probably to the 10th century, was first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex from 1150 in the context of its occupation by the Hungarian King Géza II. His expedition testifies to the importance of the stronghold in the Early Middle Ages. In the mid-12th century, Sanok not only served a defensive function but also was a major administrative centre.

In 1339, Jerzy Trojdenowicz, Duke of Galicia, incorporated the town under the Magdeburg law.  A year after his death, King Kazimierz III Wielki, his cousin and heir, annexed Sanok to the Kingdom of Poland, reconfirming its rights in 1366 and 1368. After Kazimierz III Wielki died in 1370, Sanok became part of the Kingdom of Hungary for a dozen or so years. It was reclaimed in 1378 by Jadwiga Andegaweńska and Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1417, the latter married his third wife, Elżbieta Granowska, in a Franciscan church in Sanok. After the death of Jagiełło, in the years 1555–1556, the Sanok castle became the home of his fourth wife, Sophia of Halshany, and of Hungarian Queen Isabella, a daughter of Zygmunt I Stary and Bona Sforza.

The growth of the town, the capital of one of the fives lands making up the Ruthenian Province and the seat of the starosty, was interrupted in the second half of the 16th century by various natural disasters, i.e. the big fire of 1566, which completely destroyed the town buildings. The tumultuous 17th century saw in Sanok invasions of the Tatars, Swedes and Transylvanians, which only deepened the crisis.

In 1772, Sanok came under Austrian occupation following the first partition of Poland. It was initially incorporated into the Lesko poviat but the seat of the poviat was relocated to Sanok after a dozen or so years. After the administrative reform of 1864, the town was granted the status of a city with poviat rights and became the seat of the starosty. In 1872, the iron railway was launched in Sanok. Towards the end of the 19the century, oil reserves were discovered in the city. The Jewish population rose rapidly at the same time.  In 1880, there were over 2 thousand of them in Sanok (42% of the total population), most of whom traded in timber. Towards the end of the century, Jews took the initiative to explore oil. During the First World, in 1914, the Russian soldiers who occupied the city loote

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