Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||tarnowski / tarnowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Ryglice / Ryglice (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Riglitz [j. jidysz]; ריגליץ [j. hebrajski]; Ryglice [j. niemiecki]|
Miasto Ryglice leży w powiecie tarnowskim w województwie małopolskim.
History of the Jewish community The first references concerning the Jewish population of the town of Ryglice are connected with one of the legends about the beginning of the town. According to the legend, the name Ryglice derives from the town’s wealthiest Jew, Rygel. Yet the legend does not seem to be probable, because in the period when Ryglice was mentioned for the first time, there are no references to the Jewish population. The version which seems to be more reliable is the one according to which the name derived from “ryglowanie drogi” (“barricading the road”) . The Jews settled down in the town in the first or the second half of the 14th century. It is believed that the Jews had been living here since the time king Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir III the Great) granted town privileges to Ryglice. It was he who had to issue proper privileges allowing for the Jewish settlement, however, there are no documents that could confirm this information . The visitation records of the Ryglice parish mentioned Jews in 1699. On Sundays and during holidays, a Jew of unknown name used to build a booth where vodka and beer were also sold. Consequently, the parson was ordered to get rid of the Jew from the bell tower, so as not to profane it. The Jew had to be on very good terms with the then parson, Sebastian Pawlikowicz, if he was allowed to trade and to sell alcohol in the church bell tower. Unfortunately, the documents give us no insight into how the history ended. It is known, however, that a new parson of Ryglice, Walentyn Dymalski, was appointed the same year . A new wave of Jews from Germany came to Ryglice Municipality toward the end of the 18th century; in 1830, there were 375 Jews in Ryglice. The peasant uprising took place in 1846. Rumors about planned murders of the peasants and the Jews were spread in the region. The inhabitants of Ryglice were frightened. Two Jewish bakers, Mendel Fenchel and Mojżesz Klappholz, as well as Izrael Salamon informed the cyrkuł (in the past, a territorial unit) about the situation. As a result, on February 10, a few people were arrested in Ryglice, and the presbytery of the parson Józef Orłowicz was searched. For the denunciation, the starost (county governor) Breinl offered a reward to the three Jews . The report of the hearing of the Chevau-légers Wachtmeister from Ryglice, Antoni Kopecki, dates from
Dorota Szczepanowicz /
First mentions of Ryglice date back to 1301. In the mid-14th century, there was already a parish. In the same period, the village noted substantial economic development, which was related to its location on the route to the Kingdom of Ruthenia. At that time, probably first Jewish settlers arrived, who later largely contributed to the development of local trade and crafts.
It remains unknown when Ryglice received a city charter. Since 1432, there was a village council, and a market square operated, where fairs were held every second Wednesday. At that time, Mikołaj from Burzyn was the owner of Ryglice; in the 15th century, the town partly belonged to the Sulimczyk family, which had their estates in the area. In 1581, Piotr Łyczko owned Ryki.
During the Swedish Invasion (1655-1660), the town was plundered and partly destroyed. The local peasants moved into fight with the invader. However, the Swedes were relieved by the Prince of Transylvania György Rákóczi II. Ryglice were seized again and demolished. The church was burnt down, the inhabitants murdered and an economic decline followed.
In 1768, the area was of the centres of the Bar Confederation. In 1772, Ryglice was incorporated to Austria. It no longer had the status of a city and was merely a village which belonged to the Potocki family. Kazimierz Leśniowski bought it in 1803.
A noticeable economic developed of the settlement could be observed from 1815 and the village regained its city charter in 1824. A market was held each Friday, and once a month a fair was. At the end of the 19th century, first industrial plants were established, among others a water sawmill with a mill, owned by Stefania Szczepańska. At that time also the old roads from Tuchów through Ryglice to Jodłowa and from Janiny to Swoszowa were extended. Prior to 1914, a branch of the Stefczyk’s Credit Union and a Machinery Ring operated in the town. Also underground and semi-legal patriotic associations emerged, such as the Bartoszowe Squads or the Polish Rifle Squads. In 1904, the owner of Ryglice invited the Sisters of St. Dominic.
World War I brought huge damages to the town and its surroundings, as the front line was settled there. The Russian army entered Ryglice in November 1914 and occupied the town until May 1915. On Christmas Eve 1914, a great batt