Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||makowski / makowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Różan / Różan (before 1939)|
|Other names:||רוזאן [j. jidysz]; רוז'אן [j. hebrajski]; Ружан [j. rosyjski]|
Tomasz Kawski + yarek shalom
A town situated in the Mazowieckie Province, Makowski District at the border of the Ciechanowska Height, by the estuary of the Różnica River into the Narew. It has 2619 inhabitants (2008).
Distances: Łomża 60 km, Przasnysz 41 km, Maków Mazowiecki 21 km, Pułtusk 32 km, Warsaw 84 km, Białystok 133 km, Płock 130 km, Ostrołęka 27 km.
The Jewish kehilla in Różan was established in the 17th century. During the Swedish Deluge, (1665-1660) most Jewish families from Różan were accused of alleged, or perhaps actual, co-operation with King Charles X Gustav of Sweden and murdered by the army of Stefan Czarnecki.
In the 18th century an independent Jewish kehilla functioned in town, which had seceded from the Maków Community. Information on the local synagogue dated from the 18th century as well. Relations between the Jewish kehilla and the Christians were regulated by an agreement of 1766, confirmed by King Stanisław August Poniatowski on 15 May 1766. In 1792 the Christian townsmen terminated the agreement, causing the king’s intervention.
In 1816 Hersz Jakubowicz, from the village Krzynowłoga in the county of Przasnysz, performed the duties of rabbi in town. He was succeeded by Chaim Nuta Frydman. In the second half of the 19th century, the authorities did not accept him on that post, due to his weak command of Polish. The local synagogue could hold 473 people.
During the November Uprising (1830-1831) the Rozan Jews rebelled against the ordinances of the Polish divisions commanders. In Rozan and its neighborhood the insurgents hanged a man called Berek for spying, together with Antoni Darewski, a Jewish waiter and lineman who had led the Russian army across the river Narew. The local Jewry dealt with leasing, trade and craft. In 1892 the town craftsmen divided into: ten Jewish tailors, four carpenters, four ironsmiths, a shoemaker, a hat maker, a locksmith and a watchmaker. Many of them were involved in producing the so-called trash, i.e. low quality goods. Several Jews ran weaving plants, tanneries, mills and dye-works.
J. Beckier was the most influential entrepreneur of that time. He owned a sawmill, a steam mill and a large brickyard in Dyszobaba near Różan. In the period of 1881-1888 Izrael Nusen Koperstock (Kupersztok) held the post of rabbi in town. From 1908 to 1924 the kehilla was headed by rabbi Naftali Josef Frajnd (Freind). During the Polish-Bolshevik war, after Russians had occupied Różan, a certain group of Jews actively supported the new authorities. As a result Jews monopolized the people’s militia. Jakow Sapirsztejn was appointed its commandant. He is remembered as the one who did not let the Bolsheviks plunder Jewish shops. After forc
The settlement of Różan existed as early as the Middle Ages. At first, it was located in the Land of Zakroczym. In 1378 the trade settlement was granted the location privilege. In 1403 the Mazovian Prince Janusz I confirmed and extended the privilege granting the settlement town rights under the Kulm (Chełmno) Law.
Since the 15th century Różan was the seat of the court county, the starost office and the capital of the so-called Land of Różan, known also as Land of Maków. In 1564 there were 330 houses.
In 1581 a salt warehouse for northern Mazovia was founded there. The following craft guilds were active in town in those days: weavers, cloth makers, tailors, furriers, shoemakers, and the agricultural brotherhood. The merchants traded mostly in grain and forest produce (wood, tar, ash, wax, honey, leathers).
The town flourishing until the middle of the 17th century, when it was severely destroyed during the battles of the Swedish Deluge (1655-1660) After this war, the town population amounted to 250 people. Różan had not managed to recover from fall for the whole century, in 1777 there still were only 65 houses there.
The 19th century brought some changes in the pace of the town’s development. Six fairs were held there a year. A tannery, a brewery and a mead plant were established at that time. Although Różan lost its municipal rights in 1869, its population gradually increased.
On the eve of World War I it numbered over 4,500 inhabitants. In the period of 1889-1910 the Russians built fortifications along the river Narew, in Różan and its neighborhood. In 1919 Różan was granted again town rights. In the interwar period the town was a local center of craft and small industry. In Kaszewiec, lying on the left bank of the Narew, the Reserve Officers Training Center was located. During World War II, the town was destroyed twice: in September 1939 and in the period of 1944-1945.
After the Russian-German battles, in the final period of the war, 95% of the buildings were destroyed. The town was restored little by little, but it never returned to its prewar condition. At present, it is a small production and trade center..
Geography and administration
Until the 18th century –Kingdom of Poland, Mazowieckie Province
1793 – 1807 – Prussia
1807 – 1815 – the Duchy of Warsaw
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