Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||radomski grodzki / radomski grodzki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Radom / Radom (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Радом [j.rosyjski]|
Radom - a city with county rights in central Poland, Mazowieckie Province. It lies 103 km south of Warsaw, by the Mleczna River.
The first Jews settled in Radom probably in 1568.
In 1724 King August II, at the townsmen’s request, granted the privilege de non tolerandis Judaeis; as a result Jews were forbidden to reside in the town and run business. The ban was suspended during the Sejm session. In addition, the Jewish merchants were allowed to enter the town at that time. However, despite the ban, a few Jews stayed illegally in the town anyway and majority of them was forced to leave Radom by virtue of further decrees issued in 1743 and 1746.
According to the preserved sources it is known that in 1765 approximately 65–67 people, who professed Judaism, lived in the Radom suburbs and in 1787 – over 90. In 1798, at the request of the county’s head, Aleksander Potkański, the Jews were allowed to return to the town and to settle in the assigned quarter on a territory which was under the jurisdiction of Starocin. Despite the ban, the Jews ran businesses, which led to conflicts and arguments with Catholics in Radom. After 1814 the Jews were allowed to settle outside the so-called Jewish quarter, however only the wealthiest representatives of the Jewish community in Radom could live in the centre, i.e. mainly bankers, rich merchants, lawyers and doctors. Despite all these restrictions, in 1902 the Jews owned 41% of all real estate in the town.
In 1831 the Jewish choleric cemetery was established, which functioned from 1837 on as a communal burial cemetery. In 1820s and 1830s the first synagogue was erected, which was burnt down and demolished in 1945. In the second half of the 19th century, not only the orthodox community but also the Chasidim gained a significant position. Shtiebels operated in the town; they gathered the followers of tzadiks from Góra Kalwaria, Aleksandrów and Kozienice. The Haskalah movement also gained many followers in Radom.
In the 19th century the Jewish community of Radom experienced the time of intensified economic development. In 1838, 20 Jewish merchants traded in alcohol and perfume, there were also 14 food producers and 15 shopkeepers. The Jewish entrepreneurs made a pioneer contribution to the growth of industry in Radom. When in 1841 all bans for the Jewish economic activity were abolished, a building materials factory, run by the Beckerman family, was opened, as well as other numerous pr
The settlement in the Radom area is dated 3rd century AD. At the turn of the 8th century there was a farming settlement in the area of the present town, in the valley of the river Mleczna, next to which in the 10th century a fortified town was built. Soon, in the 12th century it became a castellany. In about mid-13th century or in 1300, the settlement situated next to the fortified town, called later “Old Radom” – at that time a very important administrative and trade centre, obtained the municipal rights (Środa rights). It is assumed that circa 1340- 1350 King Kazimierz Wielki located “New Radom” to the east of the town, which obtained the Magdeburg Law in 1364. The distinguishing features of this place were: a rectangle market square, a town hall, a church of Saint John the Baptist and a fortified castle. The centre had a very favourable location: it lay near main trade routes leading from Ruthenia to Silesia, Greater Poland and Pomerania, which resulted in its rapid development. In the last quarter of the 14th century the dynamically growing town became the centre of the district, and what is more, the place of gatherings of the nobles and Seyms.
The 15th and 16th centuries saw the time of brilliance of the town Radom, which obtained numerous privileges resulting in its economic and demographic development. However, the time of splendour was broken in the 17th century as a consequence of epidemic outbreaks, fires and wars after which Radom never recovered.
Probably circa 1568, and for certain at the turn of the 18th century the Jewish population started to settle, yet soon the townspeople applied for the privilege <i>de non tolerandis Judaeis</i>, which resulted in the exile of people of the Mosaic faith. In the late 1780s, the Jewish were allowed to return to the town on Radom alderman (in Polish: starosta) Aleksander Potkański’s application, which was supposed to support the town’s development. In 1682 a Piarist college was set up and thanks to it the town became an important educational and cultural centre in the region.
After the third partition of Poland Radom became a part of Western Galicia, which belonged to Austria. In 1809 the town belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw and finally, in 1815, it became a part of the Kingdom of Poland. Very soon the first secular elementary s
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