Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||radomski grodzki / radomski grodzki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Radom / Radom (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Радом [j. rosyjski]; ראדום [j. jidysz]; ראדום [j. hebrajski]|
Radom - a city with county rights in central Poland, Mazowieckie Province. It lies 103 km south of Warsaw, by the Mleczna River.
The first Jews settled in Radom probably in 1568.
In 1724 King August II, at the townsmen’s request, granted the privilege de non tolerandis Judaeis; as a result Jews were forbidden to reside in the town and run business. The ban was suspended during the Sejm session. In addition, the Jewish merchants were allowed to enter the town at that time. However, despite the ban, a few Jews stayed illegally in the town anyway and majority of them was forced to leave Radom by virtue of further decrees issued in 1743 and 1746.
According to the preserved sources it is known that in 1765 approximately 65–67 people, who professed Judaism, lived in the Radom suburbs and in 1787 – over 90. In 1798, at the request of the county’s head, Aleksander Potkański, the Jews were allowed to return to the town and to settle in the assigned quarter on a territory which was under the jurisdiction of Starocin. Despite the ban, the Jews ran businesses, which led to conflicts and arguments with Catholics in Radom. After 1814 the Jews were allowed to settle outside the so-called Jewish quarter, however only the wealthiest representatives of the Jewish community in Radom could live in the centre, i.e. mainly bankers, rich merchants, lawyers and doctors. Despite all these restrictions, in 1902 the Jews owned 41% of all real estate in the town.
In 1831 the Jewish choleric cemetery was established, which functioned from 1837 on as a communal burial cemetery. In 1820s and 1830s the first synagogue was erected, which was burnt down and demolished in 1945. In the second half of the 19th century, not only the orthodox community but also the Chasidim gained a significant position. Shtiebels operated in the town; they gathered the followers of tzadiks from Góra Kalwaria, Aleksandrów and Kozienice. The Haskalah movement also gained many followers in Radom.
In the 19th century the Jewish community of Radom experienced the time of intensified economic development. In 1838, 20 Jewish merchants traded in alcohol and perfume, there were also 14 food producers and 15 shopkeepers. The Jewish entrepreneurs made a pioneer contribution to the growth of industry in Radom. When in 1841 all bans for the Jewish economic activity were abolished, a building materials factory, run by the Beckerman family, was opened, as well as other numerous pr
The first settlement at the future site of Radom was established in the 10th century, on a hill situated right next to an older settlement. In the 12th century, it became the capital one of the castellanies of the Sandomierz Land (from the 14th century – a province capital). Around the middle of the 13th century (before 1300) the old settlement (later called Stary Radom) located next to the castellan's residence was granted town rights. It is assumed that ca. 1340–1350, King Casimir the Great issued location privileges to Nowy Radom, situated east from the already existing town, and granted it Magdeburg rights in 1364.
The settlement quickly developed thanks to its vicinity to a number of important trade routes leading from Ruthenia to Silesia, Greater Poland and Pomerania. In the last quarter of the 14th century, the dynamically growing town became the district capital, the place of gatherings of the nobility and the Seym. The 15th and 16th centuries saw Radom's greatness in its peak; the town enjoyed numerous privileges which facilitated its economic and demographic development. During the 1505 Seym meeting held in Radom, the nobility adopted the famous Nihil novi act, one of the foundations of noble democracy. In 1613, Radom became the seat of the Crown Treasury Tribunal, which overlooked public finance management; it was dissolved in 1764.
Probably ca. 1568, and certainly at the turn of the 17th century, Jewish people started to settle in Radom. Soon, the local townspeople applied for the non tolerandis Jadaeis privilege, which effectively led to all Jews being exiled from the town in 1724. Over the course of the 17th century, the town almost came to ruin due to numerous epidemics, fires and wars (especially the Swedish Deluge); for a long time, it was unable to get back on its feet. In 1767, a radical Catholic confederation was established in Radom by Nicholas Repnin, a Russian ambassador; his aim was to block the reforms supported by King Stanisław August. In the second half of the 1880s, at the request of Aleksander Potkański, the Alderman of Radom, Jews were allowed to return to the town. It was believed that their activity would help boost Radom's economic development.
After the Third Partition of Polan