Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||pułtuski / (before 1939)|
|Community:||Pułtusk / (before 1939)|
Pułtusk is the seat of the County in Masovian Voivodeship, with 19.200 inhabitants (2006).
It is situated in the Valley of Dolna Narwia on the Narew River (the water body created by the dam in Dębe reaches Pułtusk).
The Jews living in Pułtusk were first mentioned in 1486. In the following years Pułtusk was granted a privilege “de non tolerandis Judeais”, which was legally binding until mid-18th century.
In 1810, 118 Jews lived here. In 1815 a synagogue was built. In 1856, 4.769 Jews lived here. In 1875 another synagogue was erected.
In 1931, 6.400 Jews lived here, in 1939 about 8.500, which made 49% of the overall population.
During World War II , in September 1939, Pułtusk was occupied by the German Army. On the 17th of January 1939 Narew River became the border between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Jews from here were taken to the Soviet zone of occupation. During this operation about 100 Jews were killed and drowned in the river by the Germans.
The town and market settlement existed on an island already in the 12th century. The town was destroyed by Lithuanian and Prussian- Jatvingian attacks. In 1339 Pułtusk was granted its town charter. In 1368 the Lithuanians burnt down the town completely. Afterwards, the town walls and the castle were rebuilt.
From the 15th to the 17th century, Pułtusk was one of the most important economic centers of Masovia. A favorable location on the Narew River led to further development of the town. The river was used to float corn and other goods to Gdańsk.
In 1566 a Jesuit school with a printing house was founded. P. Skarga and J. Wujek were one of the lecturers of this school. In the mid-17th century the town was destroyed by the Swedes. In 1703, the battle between the Saxon and the Swede Army took place in Pułtusk. Since 1795 it was under Prussian rule, since 1807 it transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw.
Since 1815 Pułtusk belonged to the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland).
In the interwar period, in 1920, there was a lot of heavy fighting during Polish-Bolshevik War. During World War II , in September 1939, Pułtusk was occupied by the German Army. On the 17th of January 1939 Narew River became the border between Germany and the Soviet Union. Pułtusk was renamed as Ostenburg. In January 1945 it was liberated by the Soviet Army. 85% of all the buildings were destroyed during the combat.
With your financial contribution towards the development of a town description, a photo documentation or other activities, you will be awarded a donation certificate.