Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||podkarpackie / lwowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||przemyski / przemyski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Przemyśl / Przemyśl (before 1939)|
|Other names:||פשמישל [j. jidysz]; פשמישל [j. hebrajski]; Premissel [j. niemiecki]|
Andrzej Potocki /
Przemyśl – a city in north-east of Poland, a district capital in the Subcarpathian Province. It lies 85 km southeast of Rzeszów and 362 km southeast of Warsaw, by the San River.
Historical records indicate that Przemyśl was home to a Jewish community from as early as 1030, the earliest recorded Jewish prescense in Poland. The next record of Jews living in Przemyśl is in 1367. From the period 1402-1452 there are 305 individual records concerning Jews in the documents of the court of assessors.
By 1419, a Jewish street had been established in the town, most likely in an area specifically designated for the Jewish population. The first mention of a synagogue in Przemyśl appeared nearly one hundred years later in 1518. In 1521 there were five Jewish houses in the town, and the first record of a mikvah comes from 1538. By 1542, there were 18 Jewish families in Przemyśl, and a record indicated the prescence of a wooden synagogue in the town in 1550. King Zygmunt II August granted the local Jewish community seperate rights in 1559, allowing them to carry out business and other activities in the town. The first recorded conflict involving Jews in Przemyśl occured on March 28, 1561 when non-Jews from the town set fire to the synagogue and plundered Jewish apartments.
In 1563, 169 Jewish families lived in Przemyśl, while in 1578 their numbers had risen to about 206. In 1568, the community established a Jewish cemetary outside the town walls. Also during this period, King Stefan Batory issued regulations that standardized the relationship between the Przemyśl Kehilla and national authorities. The former location of the wooden synagogue for nearly 20 years became home to a brick synagogue built in the four-year period from 1590-1594 with the permission of Bishop Wawrzyniec Gostyński. In 1595, the Przemyśl municipality concluded a contract with the elders of the kehilla concerning the co-financing of the fortifications of the town by the Jews. In 1618, Przemyśl's Jews accused Wojciech Wojna and Łukasz Trzebnicki of an armed raid on Żydowska street and of occupying a house where the elders conducted their debates at that time. At that time, according to the pre-sejm instructions of Wisznia, there were more Jews in the town than Christians. In 1629 they owned 64 tenements and houses in the town and managed a charitable society. By some estimates, the Jewish population in the town during the 1650s was approximately 900.
In the 17th century, the Przemyśl Jewish community le
A frontier stronghold in the Early Middle Ages, first mentioned in 981; a site of contention between Poland and Ruthenia; a commercial centre on the way from Kraków to Ruthenia; a colony of Jewish merchants in the 10th century; occupied by Bolesław I Chrobry in 1018, recaptured by Ruthenian dukes in 1031; the capital of an autonomous Ruthenian duchy at the turn of the 13th century; the capital of an Orthodox bishopric in the 13th century and of an archdiocese since 1992; annexed to Poland by Casimir III the Great in 1340; the municipal rights granted before 1359 (1323?) and confirmed in 1389; a home to a large Jewish community since the 14th century (the most important community of Red Ruthenia at the Sejm of the Jews of the Crown in 1670); in 1498, Przemyśl was destroyed following the invasion of Stephen the Great. The capital of the Przemyśl Land, castellany and starosty until the end of the 18th century. Przemyśl saw its heyday in the 15th and 16th centuries; it became an educational and cultural centre (a cathedral school founded in 1432); numerous churches and burgher houses were erected; craft production and commercial exchange thrived; Przemyśl became equipped with its own water supply and sewage systems; a centre of the Reformation movement together with the neighbouring town of Dubieck from the 16th to 17th century; in 1656 Przemyśl resisted the invasion of the Swedish army; besieged by the troops of György Rákóczi II in 1657; under Austrian occupation in the years 1772–1918; development of clandestine activity after 1831 (e.g. the Organisation of Free Halicz Inhabitants connected with the Polish People's Society); economic recovery in the second half of the 19 century following the launch in 1860 of a railway line linking the city to Kraków (railway workshops, a factory of agricultural machinery, commerce), to Medyka (Lviv) in 1861 and to Malhowice in 1872. The construction of
a fortress started in 1855; during the First World War, from September 1914 to March 1915, besieged and invaded by Russian troops, in June 1915 recaptured by Austro-Hungarian and German troops; at the beginning of November 1918, Przemyśl was temporarily occupied by Ukrainians. The interwar period was a time of the development of small-scale enterprises as well as workers' and peasants' strikes; the seat of the 10th Corps District Command; an
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