Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||Kłodzki / Landkreis Glatz (before 1939)|
|Community:||Polanica Zdrój / Altheide-Bad (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Altheide-Bad [j. niemiecki]|
Polanica Zdrój – miasto na południowym zachodzie Polski, w województwie dolnośląskim, powiat kłodzki. Odległe 13 km na południowy zachód od Kłodzka, 102 km na południe od Wrocławia, 455 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy.
Anna Nowak /
The earliest record from 1347 mentions a settlement under the name Heyde (forest, heath) surrounded by dense forests and owned by the Silesian knighthood family von Glaubitz, residing at the Szczerba castle. In the second half of the 15th century, half of the settlement became the property of the von Lazan family. When the last member of the family, Sigmund Seidlitz von Lazan, passed away in 1494, that part of the village passed into the hands of Duke of Ziębice, first Count of Kłodzko, who in turn transferred ownership to the Augustinian convent in Kłodzko. The other half of the village, 2 lans in area, belonged to successive knighthood families until it was incorporated into the royal domain. In 1538, the village, with its 6 peasant farms and one mill, was purchased from its previous owner, von Ullersdorf, by the city of Kłodzko as an endowment for a hospital. About 1556, a new settlement named Nowa Polanica (Neuheide, currently Polanica Górna) was established at the northern edge of the village. As a consequence, the older village became known as Stara Polanica (Alte Heide, later Alt-Heide).
In 1595, the Augustinian convent in Kłodzko was liquidated and its property taken over by the local Jesuit seminary. The Jesuits immediately set about expanding the village by bringing in new tenants. In 1630, a manor estate was established and, in 1631, Polanica was reported to have 16 tenants paying church taxes. Polanica did not remain long under the management of the Jesuits. It was destroyed and burned down (along with the manor house) by the Swedes in 1645.
In 1747 the village was still co-owned by the Jesuits and the Kłodzko hospital. From 1765 on, it had three owners – the Jesuit order, the hospital and a commercial counsellor by the name Genedl. In 1773, the Jesuit convent was dissolved and its property was claimed by the Prussian state. In 1778, a substantial part of the estate, containing mineral springs, passed into the hands of Friedrich von Reden, director of the State Mining Authority in Wrocław, future minister of mining and metallurgy under the Prussian government and pioneer of industrialization in Upper Silesia.
Polanica developed rapidly in the 19th century when its new owner, Joseph Grolms, a merchant from Kłodzko, installed a well at one of the five natural springs (“Józef”), built a spa house (wooden