Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||nyski / Neisse (before 1939)|
|Community:||Paczków / Patschkau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Patschkau [j. niemiecki]|
Пачкув [j. rosyjski]
The town of Paczków is situated in the Nysa District, in Opole Province. It lies on Przedgórze Sudeckie, by the Nysa Kłodzka River.
Adam Marczewski /
First Jews lived in Paczków as early as the turn of the 14th century. New Jewish settlers brought with them western models of social and political organization of a state. In addition to that, they also imported tradition, religious rites and a language of Ashkenazi Jews (Hebr. אַשְׁכְּנָזִים, the word “Ashkenazi” denotes Germany as a country where they came from.) At the time of settling down in Silesia at the turn of the 14th century Jews were not restricted by any legal regulations. What is more, they were also protected by numerous privileges issued by Silesian dukes, who followed the example of such privileges as the one granted to Jews by Boleslaw the Pious in 1264 [the General Charter of Jewish Liberties, known as the Statute of Kalisz.]
When Silesia got under rule of Czech dukes in 1327, also Silesian Jews adopted Czech jurisdiction.
In the mid-14th century the Black Death epidemics broke out in Silesia, which brought about famine and starvation. The locals, looking for a scapegoat, accused Jews of poisoning wells, which in effect led to the pogrom against Jews in 1349 Paczków. This information clearly proves that Jews must have lived in Paczków back then.
There were a few Jewish families living in the town in 1373. One of the buildings housed a house of prayer. In the 15th century Jewish merchants were granted official trading permit to operate in Paczków. In 1452 one of the streets in the town was called Żydowska [Jewish]
Most Jews in the 15th century occupied themselves with trade and granted loans to Silesian dukes (charging interests on financial loans was then prohibited by Canon law in the whole of Christian Europe.) Some Hebrews ran small craft workshops and shops.
Good financial situation of Jews evoked increasing hatred against them and led to pogroms, whose source was related to economic issues. Kazimierz Bobowski comments on those facts as follows: “Increasing pogroms against Silesian Jews from the 15th century should be related to a growing class disparity in towns. The patriciate of many Silesian towns hoped that pogroms would defuse, only in some degree in the least, dissatisfaction of the poor with economic releations.”
Early in the 16th century competition between Jewish and Christian merchants in Silesia intensified. Finan
The town of Paczków was founded in 1254 on the Flemish law. The Bishop of Wrocław Tomasz I had wanted Paczków to serve as a defense on the Southwestern border of the bishop’s principality. It was he who was responsible for the foundation of the town. By the end of the 18th century the fortified castle was built. From 1327 Paczków was under Czech dominium and it shared the political fate of whole Silesia. In the middle of the 14th century a twice-fortified wall was constructed. In 1428 the town was destroyed by the Hussites. In 1507 the town had 1,314 inhabitants. In the years 1603-1607 the town was struck by the cholera epidemic, which diminished the population. During the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) the armies of Sweden and the Empire plundered Paczków. As a result, there were only 100 people living in the town in 1648. From 1784 the town belonged to Prussia. In 1784 the town had 1,598 inhabitants. In 1810 the Prussian authorities revoked the bishop’s government over Paszków. In 1860 the town had 4,470 inhabitants. In 1874 a railroad connection was established with Nysa and Kamieniec, which contributed to the growth of the local economy. In 1933 the town had 7,468 inhabitants.
In May 1945, the Soviet Army occupied the town of Paczków. During the fighting, 15% of the city’s buildings were destroyed.
The town population amounts to 8,100 inhabitants (2007).