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Polska / opolskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere


Province:opolskie / inne (before 1939)
County:miasto na prawach powiatu / Oppeln (before 1939)
Community:Opole / Oppeln (before 1939)
Other names:Oppeln [j. niemiecki]; אופולה [j. hebrajski]
50.6691° N / 17.9238° E
50°40'08" N / 17°55'25" E


Adam Marczewski /

Opole - a city in south-western Poland, Opole Province, a county capital. It is located 315 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Odra River, in the eastern part of the Silesian Lowlands.



Adam Marczewski

Nowa Synagoga w Opolu, około 1935 r. | nieznany

It is probable that the first Jews already lived in Opole before the city was even established, which we know to have taken between 1211 and 1217 (see Jews in Śląsk to the 16th century.). 

In the mid-14th century, the Black Death broke out in Śląsk, which led to another disaster, famine. The local people, trying to blame this on someone, accused the Jews of poisoning a well. This resulted in a bloody pogrom within the city in 1349. It is most probable that, at the time, Jews ran a school in Opole..

Another historical reference, which confirms a Jewish presence in Opole. dates from 1396 and states that Prince Bolko IV sold a house, near the Holy Cross Cemetery, which had once belonged to a Jew named Izaak..

At the beginning of the 15th century, most of the Jewish residents of Opole made their living through trade and granting loans to Princes (according to Canon law, charging interest financial loans was banned throughout, what was then, Europe). This is to be confirmed by the fact that, in 1426, Prince Bolko IV owed two Jewish brothers from Opole, Mosze and Dawid, 40 and 124 grzywnas, respectively..

In 1427, Prince Bolko IV’s brother, Bernard, permitted a Jew, Abraham from Ziębice, his family and all the people he employed, to settle in More

Local history

Adam Marczewski /

Panorama Opola, 1535 | nieznany

A castle and a settlement appeared at the current location of Opole as early as in the 9th century. The first mention of the castle dates back to the year 845; it is a note called Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii, written by the so-called Bavarian Geographer for Louis the German. The place was one of the settlements of the Opolan tribe.

Probably towards the end of the 9th century, the territory became a part of Great Moravia and later came into the Czech sphere of influence. In 990, Opole, together with the entire Silesia, was annexed by Poland. In 1039, however, it came back under the Czech rule for another 11 years. In the 12th century, the town became a castellan stronghold and a part of the Silesian Province. In 1179,






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