Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||miasto na prawach powiatu / Oppeln (before 1939)|
|Community:||Opole / Oppeln (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Oppeln [j. niemiecki]; אופולה [j. hebrajski]|
Adam Marczewski /
Opole - a city in south-western Poland, Opole Province, a county capital. It is located 315 km southwest of Warsaw. It lies on the Odra River, in the eastern part of the Silesian Lowlands.
It is probable that the first Jews already lived in
In the mid-14th century, the Black Death broke out in
Another historical reference, which confirms a Jewish presence in Opole. dates from 1396 and states that Prince Bolko IV sold a house, near the Holy Cross Cemetery, which had once belonged to a Jew named Izaak..
At the beginning of the 15th century, most of the Jewish residents of Opole made their living through trade and granting loans to Princes (according to Canon law, charging interest financial loans was banned throughout, what was then, Europe). This is to be confirmed by the fact that, in 1426, Prince Bolko IV owed two Jewish brothers from Opole, Mosze and Dawid, 40 and 124 grzywnas, respectively..
In 1427, Prince Bolko IV’s brother, Bernard, permitted a Jew, Abraham from Ziębice, his family and all the people he employed, to settle in
Adam Marczewski /
A castle and a settlement appeared at the current location of Opole as early as in the 9th century. The first mention of the castle dates back to the year 845; it is a note called Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii, written by the so-called Bavarian Geographer for Louis the German. The place was one of the settlements of the Opolan tribe.
Probably towards the end of the 9th century, the territory became a part of Great Moravia and later came into the Czech sphere of influence. In 990, Opole, together with the entire Silesia, was annexed by Poland. In 1039, however, it came back under the Czech rule for another 11 years. In the 12th century, the town became a castellan stronghold and a part of the Silesian Province. In 1179,