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Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki

Polska / mazowieckie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)
County:nowodworski / warszawski (before 1939)
Community:Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki / Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki (before 1939)
Other names:נובידבור מזובייצקי [j. hebrajski]; נאווידוואר [j. jidysz]; Новы-Двур-Мазовецки [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
52.4464° N / 20.6927° E
52°26'47" N / 20°41'33" E

Location

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Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki | Radosław Ostrowski

Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki is the capital of Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki County, Masovian Voivodeship, with 27.500 inhabitants ( as of 2007). It is located in the Valley of Warsaw, at the mouth of the Narew River to the Vistula).

 

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History

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Rozlewnia piwa Bermana | K. Bielawski

Since the 17th century the first Jews started to settle down here. At the beginning of the 18th century a synagogue was built. From 1768 to 1769 a lot of Jewish refugees came here from Ukraine. Most of there were Hasidim who ran away from the Cossack attacks. In that way Nowy Dwór became one of the first centers of the Hasidic movement in the Masovia region. 

In 1781 a Jewish printing house of J.A. Krieger was opened (it was active since 1818). Within the next 15 years 58.000 books were printed here. In 1784 two volumes of Talmud were printed here. In 1857, 1.305 Jews lived here, which made 49% of the whole population. In 1897, the number increased to 4.737 Jews , which made 65% of the whole population.

In 1921, 3.900 Jews lived in Nowy Dwór, which made 50% of the whole population.

In September 1939, Nowy Dwór was occupied by the German Army. In May 1940 the Germans formed a ghetto here, with 4.000 Jews gathered in it. Most of them were sent to the forced labor camp in Pomiechówek. In October 1942, 2.800 Jews from Zakroczyn, Wyszogród and Czerwińsk were transported here. In 1942, the Germans started a ghetto closedown. Two railway transports with 2.000 people were sent to the extermination camp in Oświęcim-Treblinka. The last transport was sent on 12th December 1942.
 

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Local history

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View of the main street of Nowy Dwor | unknown

The town – Nowa Curia was first mentioned in 1294. The duke’s town guarding the waterways of the Bug, Narew and the Vistula Rivers was founded in 1355. In 1374 Nowy Dwór was granted its town charter. Favorable location by an important waterway junction led to further development of the town. The waterways were used to float goods to Gdańsk. There was a customs house in Nowy Dwór. In 1655 Nowy Dwór was destroyed by the Swede Army. As a result, the town was deprived of its town rights.In 1782 Nowy Dwór regained its town charter.

Since 1795 Nowy Dwór was under Prussian rule. In 1806 the Napoleon decided to build a great castle near Nowy Dwór, in Modlin (it started in 1807). Since 1807 Nowy Dwór was part of the Duchy of Warsaw, and since 1815 it belonged to the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland). In the 19th century, further development of the town was connected with erection of the Modlin castle where a large Russian Army post was stationed.

During World War I, in 1915 the German Army burnt down the town and started to besiege the Modlin castle.

In the interwar period, in 1920, during Polish-Bolshevik war, there was the headquarters of the Polish Army in Nowy Dwór. The Modlin castle played an important role in operational defensive plans of Poland.
 

In September 1939, Nowy Dwór was occupied by the German Army. A nearby Modlin castle defended itself until the 29th September 1939, one day longer than Warsaw.

 

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