Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wielicki / krakowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Niepołomice / Niepołomice (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Niepolomitz [j.niemiecki]|
Adam Marczewski /
Niepołomice – a municipal town in southern Poland, Małopolskie Province, Wieliczka County. It lies by the Wisła River and is located 14 kms north-east of Wieliczka, 24 km south-east of Kraków, and 300 kms south-west of Warsaw.
Not much is known about the first Jews in Niepołomice. Officially, the end of the 18th century is thought to be the beginning of their settlement, although the kehilla already existed during king Kazimierz Wielki's reign. There is also no information where the independent kehilla was established, but it must have happened relatively late, because in a local cemetery there is a gravestone of the first rabbi of Niepołomice – Josef Tetelbaum who died in 1916. After his death his grandson, Nahum Tetelbaum, took over his office. It is, nevertheless, certain that it the 18th century, when Niepołomice already had municipal rights, a kehilla of several dozen people existed. This fact can be proven by statistical data showing the gradual increase of the Jews population: 1765 – 29 Jews; 1880 – 402 Jews (11.1%); 1881 – 394 Jews (10.4%); 1900 – 507 Jews; 1921 – 484 Jews (11.9%). The reason for this matter of fact could be the existence of de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege in some of the royal towns of Małopolska Zachodnia (Western Lesser Poland) (among others: Pilzno, Bochnia, and Ujście Solne) .
The Jews of Niepołomice, like in other towns, dealt mainly with trade, which had already been well developed at the end of the 19th century. There was a significant number of shops of all kinds, the majority of which belonged to the Jews. They were the owners of 16 inns (there was only one Catholic inn) as well as warehouses: the Polish Tobacco Monopoly warehouse, the Polish Alcohol Monopoly warehouse (owned by Pinkus Blumenfrucht), the Warmann's flour warehouse, the Efroim Mames' coal and timber yard, bakeries: Liban's, Blonder's, and Szymon Cioś's, and restaurants: Jan Kraus', Ludwik Wojtal's, and the Gressler sisters'. From the beginning of the 19th century there was a cheder in Niepołomice run by the local rabbi and a synagogue with an adhering cemetery, rectangular in plan, was also built. Up to that time, the kehilla buried its dead in Klasne near Wieliczka which belonged to the cities established by district governors and used by the Jews and inhabited by them exclusively . Before the outbreak of the Second World War the Jewish community in Niepołomice probably had at least two synagogues, a bath house, a kosher poultry abattoir, plus a number of shops, service outlets and gastronomic premises (the detailed list of shops, workshops, and Jewi
Marta Dziob, Karolina Ożóg
The name of the original settlement and subsequently the town of Niepołomice is connected with the primeval forest featuring "niepołomy", i.e. trees which are virtually unbreakable. The Polish chronicles (by Jan Długosz, Bartosz Paprocki), the archival notes and the court's bills tell an interesting and extensive history of Niepołomice. The history of the town dates back to the 13th century, but the oldest monuments were built at Kazimierz Wielki's order in mid-14th century. . The hunting castle and The 10,000 Martyrs Catholic Church were built at the king's personal order. The first document made out in Niepołomice by Kazimierz Wielki is dated to 1349. The castle's purpose was to defend Cracow from invasions threatening from the East, and to guard the ford on the Wisła River. The castle was converted to a base for hunting expeditions in the neighbouring primeval forest under king Władysław Jagiełło’s reign who was a great hunting enthusiast.
Originally, the castle consisted of two towers, the gate's tower, and two buildings. One tower, seen from a square view, was located in the northwest corner, the second one, in a rectangle view, was located in the northeast corner and it was the place of the final defence. This fact can be proven by the tower’s wall thickness and the well in its cellars. There was a curtain wall between the towers, which must have had a crenellation at the top and a porch for defenders. From the eastern side of the castle there was a single-stroke and two-storey building. The second building, from the southern side, had a defence tower in its southwest corner, the remains of which still exist as a building jutting from the facade. There are some assumptions that this tower is a remainder of an entry defence gate. Between the southern building and the tower in the northwest corner there was another curtain wall. The length of the wall suggests that it had an additional defence tower, which could have served as an entry gate. Until the 17th century the castle in Niepołomice was constantly modernised. The gothic part was included into the Renaissance quadrilateral project consisting of two floors. The arcade court was meant to imitate Wawel.
The second historic building is The 10,000 Martyrs Catholic Church, which refers in name to 22 June 1349 when the army commanded by Kazimierz Wielki won the battle