Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wielicki / krakowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Niepołomice / Niepołomice (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Niepolomitz [j. niemiecki]; ניפולומיצה [j. hebrajski]; Nieplomitza [j.jidysz]|
Adam Marczewski /
Niepołomice – a municipal town in southern Poland, Małopolskie Province, Wieliczka County. It lies by the Wisła River and is located 14 kms north-east of Wieliczka, 24 km south-east of Kraków, and 300 kms south-west of Warsaw.
Jews first started to settle in Niepołomice in the mid-18th century, although reportedly a Jewish settlement had already existed there since the reign of Casimir the Great (second half of the 14th century). Nonetheless, the first rabbi of Niepołomice mentioned in historical sources was Josef Teitelbaum, the son of Rabbi Szmuel of Gorlice (he died in 1916 and was succeeded by his grandson – Nachum Teitelbaum). A Jewish community had probably formed a bit earlier, seeing that a Jewish school was opened in Niepołomice at the beginning of the 19th century, along with a synagogue and a cemetery located on a rectangular plot (before that, Jews from Niepołomice had been buried in Klasno near Wieliczka). Statistical data shows a gradual growth of the Jewish population: 1765 – 29 Jews; 1880 –
Marta Dziob, Karolina Ożóg /
The name of the original settlement and, later on, the town of Niepołomice derives from the expression "niepołomy" – the virtually unbreakable trees that used to grow in the surrounding forests. Polish chronicles (by Jan Długosz and Bartosz Paprocki), archival notes and the Court's bills tell an interesting and extensive story of Niepołomice. The existence of the town can be traced back to the 13th century, but the oldest monuments were built during the reign of Casimir the Great, in the mid-14th century. A hunting castle and the Ten Hundred Martyrs Catholic Church were built at the King's personal order. The first document issued by Casimir the Great in Niepołomice is dated to 1349. The castle's initial purpose was to defend Kraków from invasions from the East and to guard the ford on the Vistula River. Under King Władysław Jagiełło, the castle was converted into a base for hunting expeditions in the neighbouring primeval forest, seeing that the king himself was a great enthusiast of hunting.