Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||opolski / Falkenberg (before 1939)|
|Community:||Niemodlin / Falkenberg (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Falkenberg [j. niemiecki]|
The town of Niemodlin is situated in south-western Poland, Opole County, Opole Province. Located 24 km west of Opole, 338 km southwest of Warsaw, it lies on the bank of Ścinawa Niemodlińska River, a tributary of the Nysa Kłodzka.
Adam Marczewski /
The good financial situation of the Jewry was a reason of the growing hatred towards them and one of the causes of the pogroms. This is how Kazimierz Bobowski evaluates the economic situation around that time: "The intensification of the pogroms in Silesia that started in the early 15th century is to be connected with the growing of economic differences between social strata. The patriciate of many Silesian cities saw in the pogroms a chance for a way of dealing with the discontent of the poor.
The town of Niemodlin, using the common unfriendliness towards Jews as a pretext, accepted the privilege De non tolerandis Judaeis from the Czech king Władysław.
In the first of the Silesian Wars, in 1742, most of Silesia (apart from Cieszyn Silesia and the Duchy of Troppau) was under the Prussian Kingdom rule.
On August 3, 1781, the office of Crown property in Wrocław issued a decree regulating the matter of Jewish settlement in the cities of Upper Silesia. Cities that held the old privilege de non tolerandis Judaeis were not obligated to admit Jews. Niemodlin was one of those cities..
The earliest Jewish settlements in Niemodling were connected with the edict on civic relations(Edikt die Burgelichen Berhalnisse der Juden), commonly referred to as the emancipatory edict, issued on March 11, 1812 by Friedrick Wilhelm, the Prussian king. This royal edict equalized the rights of Jews, who now became rightful citizens of the Kingdom of Prussia and were thus called the state’s citizens (Statsbürger) or natives (Inländer.) In order to obtain Prussian citizenship it was necessary to assume a full name and to know German. The Jews who were granted all the civic rights received special certificates.
Under this edict Jews had the freedom of residence, profession, religion and religious rites together with the right to freely purchase real estate. From then on Jews could study at higher education institutions and occupy academic posts. Having civic rights they were also obligated to military service (from 1813 onwards they were being drafted into the army.) The king reserved the right to decide whether a Jewish person could work for Prussian state administration or not. New regulations abolished Jewish judicial system and deemed Jewish communities associations under civic law.
According to Selma Stern, the edict of 1
The first mentions of the village of Niemodlin come from 1224. Around 1283 Niemodlin was given municipal rights. In 1294 it was the seat of a Castellan. At the end of the thirteenth century a fortified castle was built. In 1327 Prince Władysław of Bytom accepted overlordship from the Bohemian king and from this moment Niemodlin became part of the line of succession of Bohemia and, like a large part of Silesia, part of the Bohemian Kingdom. The town‘s location on the commercial routes between Opole, Prague and Brno enhanced its development. In 1428 the town was destroyed by the Hussites. After the childless death of Louis II Jagiello, king of Hungary and Bohemia, who was succeeded by Ferdinand Habsburg on the Bohemian throne, Niemodlin fell under Habsburg rule. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1638), the town was besieged and destroyed by Swedish troops. In 1742 Niemodlin came under Prussian rule. In 1758 the town had a population of 577 inhabitants, and by 1864 this number had grown to 2,076.
During WWII, the Soviet army entered Niemodlin in March 1945 and 50% of the buildings were destroyed during the fighting.