Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||namysłowski / Namslau (before 1939)|
|Community:||Namysłów / Namslau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Namslau [j. niemiecki]|
Adam Marczewski /
The borough town located in south west Poland, in the Opole Province. It is located 54 km north of Opole, 295 km south west of Warsaw. It lies on the left bank of Widawa river.
The earliest mentions of a Jewish community in Namysłów come from 1321. Jews lived on one of the town’s streets. In 1359, during the pogroms in Silesia, the emperor ordered Namysłów authorities to guarantee the safety of Jews living in the town.In 1582 Jews were expelled from Namysłów after an imperial edict.
When the town fell under Prussian rule in 1742, the Jewish settlement was re-established. In 1787, 40 Jews lived in Namysłów accounting for 1.6% of the population. In 1794 the Jewish cemetery was established. In 1843 there were 174 Jews living in the town, which constituted 5% of inhabitants. In 1856 the synagogue was built. In 1861 the Jewish community of Namysłów reached 239 inhabitants, accounting for 5.7% of the population. The turn of the twentieth century was marked by a large Jewish migration to the West. As a result, in 1925 there were 81 Jews left in Namysłów. Between 1930 and 1932 various anti-Semitic incidents took place and the cemetery was vandalized. In 1938, there were still 28 Jews in the town.
During the Kristallnacht (November 9-10 1938) the Nazis burnt the synagogue and several Jewish shops down. There were 25 Jews living in the town at that time. There is no information about their lives but they were probably deported to death camps.
The settlement of Namysłów was established in the thirteenth century. Around 1249, Namysłów was given municipal rights. Between 1313 and 1323 the independent Duchy of Namysłów (Księstwo Namysłowskie) came into existence. In 1348, as a result of the Treaty of Namysłów signed by Casmir III of Poland and Charles IV of Bohemia, the town became a part of the Bohemian succession and, like a large part of Silesia, became part of the Bohemian Kingdom. In 1350 the construction of the city wall commenced, and in 1360 this was followed by the construction of a fortified castle. In 1377, 1466 and 1483 great fires destroyed the town. From the fifteenth century, the town became an important center on the commercial route between Wrocław and Cracow, later famous for its textile manufacturing. In 1526, after the childless death of Louis II Jagiello, king of Bohemia and Hungary, the town, as a part of Bohemia, fell under the rule of Ferdinand Habsburg. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1638), after a lengthy siege, the town was sacked by the Swedish troops. In 1633 an eruption of plague killed 1,300 inhabitan. In 1703, the emperor sold the castle to the Teutonic Knights who subsequently established the Commandry of Namysłów that ceased to exist after the secularisation of the order in 1810. In 1722 the construction of fortifications began. In 1742, the town passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. During the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), the town was occupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In 1787, the town had a population of 2,521 inhabitants and was a base for a garrison of 654 soldie.During the Franco-Prussian war (1806-1807) Namysłów was occupied by French troops. In 1868 the railway connection to Wrocław and Kluczbork was established.
During WWII the Germans built a sub camp of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp and three forced work camps near the town. In January 1946, the town was conquered by Soviet troops. 40% of the town’s infrastructure was destroyed.