Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||częstochowski / częstochowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Mstów / Mstów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Omstov [j. jidysz]; מסטוב [j. hebrajski]; Mstów [j. niemiecki]|
The village of Mstów is situated in the administrative district of Częstochowa, in the northern part of the Province of Silesia. It lies on the Częstochowa Uplands on the Warta River.
Adam Marczewski /
The beginning of Jewish settlement in Mstów dates back to the XVII-th century. Already in 1697, a synagogue was built in the town in place of the one, which had been erected previously. A library was adjacent to the building of the synagogue. The local Jews were members of the Janów kehilla. Most of the Jews made a living from trade and crafts. In 1897 a Jewish cemetery was established. Previously the deceased were buried in Częstochowa.
An independent Jewish community was established in the beginning of the XIX-th century.
In 1921, during the interwar period, Mstów was inhabited by 740 Jews, who constituted 37,6 % of the total population.
Most of the Jews lived in houses around the Town Square. They occupied themselves with trade and crats. The Jews ran two potteries- one belonged to Yitzek Pelta, the other, by the “Dike” was run by Leszczyk.
In the beginning of 1940, the nazi authorities of the III Reich, devised a plan concerning the conquered people of Poland. The plan was named “Generalplan Ost” (English: Master Plan East) and assumed a complete extermination of the Jewish population. The remaining Poles were to serve as slave labor force in the German industry and agriculture. The plan was first initiated in Greater Poland, Pomerania and Silesia. In Upper Silesia, initially there were plans to deport all the Jews to the General Government, however after the refusal of its authorities, a decision was made to establish the ghettos. In the beginning of 1940, the largest ghettos were established in Będzin and Sosnowiec. In reality however, they were “reserves of labor force”, transported to forced labor camps in whole Silesia. In the spring of 1940, the Germans established a ghetto in Mstów. It was located at Kilińskiego Street. The local community was headed by a Judenrat.
On September 22nd 1942, the Germans deported all the Jews from Mstów (over 650 people) to the ghetto in Radomsko, and next to the death camp in Treblinka.
The first mentions of the Mstów hamlet originate from 1144. Jan Długosz wrote at the time that Piotr Własta paid for the Mstów village church. The first historical mention was in 1193. It was, at the time, a village belonging to the Laterański Canons Regular in Piask, Wrocław.
In 1212, a conference of bishops took place here called by Henryk Kietlicz. In 1220, a fortified cloister was built. In the years 1241, 1260 and 1266, the hamlet was destroyed by Tartar invaders. In 1279, Mstów gained city-status as a private city owned by the cloister.
In 1655 , it was destroyed by the Swedes and, in 1709, by the Russians.
In 1793, it found itself annexed to Prussia. From 1807, it lay within the Warsaw Principality and, from 1815, within the Polish Kingdom. During the January uprising of 1865, the city raised a squad of rebels who, in 1867, attacked and defeated a Russian infantry company. In 1870, the Tsarist authorities removed Mstów’s city-status.
In 1879, a huge fire destroyed the village.
During World War I, the battle frontlines ran close to the village.
In September 1939, Mstów was occupied by the German army and, in January 1945 by the Soviet army.