Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||mławski / mławski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Mława / Mława (before 1939)|
|Other names:||מלאווע [j. jidysz]; מינסק [j. hebrajski]; Млава [j. rosyjski]|
Tomasz Kawski /
Mława - a city with county rights in central Poland, in the Mazovian Province. it is located114 km north of Warsaw and 82 km south of Olsztyn.
First Jewish settlers appeared in Mława in the 15th century. In 1507, a tax connected to the coronation of King Zygmunt I Stary was imposed on the local Jews. Jewish presence can be verified by the the Płock chapter’s charge against the local barber-surgeon, Ambroży Broze, in 1551 . The accusations were that “he disdains the sacraments of the church, does not take part in Sunday masses, but celebrates the Sabbath with the Jews and used to go to their synagogue to Jewish services” and that “he converted a lot of people to Judaism”.
In the second half of the 16th century, Jewish communities in the Mazowsze region – including the one in Mława – faced a wave of charges of ritual murder of Christian children and of desecrating the Host. .
In 1564, there were 429 houses in Mława, five of which belonged to Jews.
Local Jews were administratively subordinate to the Ciechanów kehilla until the mid-18th century. As a result of the disputes between the Christian and Jewish townspeople, the Committee of Good Order had to intervene, and in 1776, expelled all Jews from Mława. However, the Jews were forced to leave the town not only because of the pressure put on them by the administration, but also due to a fire that destroyed a significant number of the buildings.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Jews started to resettle in Mława. Not even one Jew was registered in the town in 1790. However, in 1808, there were 137 Jews living in Mława. The newcomers arrived mostly from the nearby towns.
The first to settle in Mława were the families of Aron Boruch, Dawid Majer, Salomon Majer, Abram Szmul and Józef Abram Fadatowicz. The authorities allowed Aron Boruch’s family to settle in Mława in 1798, but when the burghers opposed it, he was forced to leave the town, and his goods were taken over by the local authorities.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the first wooden synagogue was built in Mława.
When Mława was included in the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Poland, the authorities decided to create separate Jewish districts in bigger towns. In 1824, one such district was created in Mława. It was located between Warszawska, Bóżnicza and Ostatnia Streets. However, the resettleme
Tomasz Kawski /
The first mention of Mława in historical sources dates back to the 14th century. In 1429, the Masovian Dukes Siemowit, Kazimierz, and Władysław granted the settlement city rights under the Chełmno Law. In the 14th century, the town became a county capital and a seat of the alderman. A favourable location by the trade route leading from Ruthenia to Prussia and numerous privileges granted to the town (1543, 1565, 1576, 1602, 1667, 1724, 1745, 1779) led to Mława's further development. Long-range trading in Ruthenian cattle was one of the most profitable ways of making money. At the time, Mława was one of the largest towns in the region, while its customs house yielded some of the highest amounts of income in all Masovia.
In 1564, there were 429 houses and 22 building plots in the town. Many inhabitants of Mława were craftsmen: apart from shoemakers, there were 225 various craftsmen, including 140 brewers, as well as potters, blacksmiths, tailors, bakers, carpenters and butchers.
In the 17th century, the town gradually started to fall into decline. In 1616, there were 320 houses and 85 empty building plots in Mława. The number of craftsmen decreased to 284. The town also suffered considerably during the Swedish invasion in the years 1655–1660. In 1664, only 45 houses and 20 craftsmen remained. Out of 40 voloks (ca. 720 hectares) of land belonging to the town, only 17 were sown. Moreover, a fire in 1692 brought even more damage the town and completely destroyed the Town Hall and the local parish church. In 1765, only 85 houses remained in Mława, all of which were occupied by poor craftsmen. While the town was still being rebuilt, another fire broke out in 1783 and destroyed almost all the houses.
After the Partitions of Poland, Mława became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia (1795–1807). Later on, it was incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815). In 1815, it was annexed by Russia (Congress Poland) and remained within its territory until Poland regained independence. In the years 1815– 1918, Mława was a frontier town, located 7km from the Prussian border.
The town's significance increased in 1877, when it became a part of the Vistula River Railway, connecting Mława with Kovel through Warsaw, Lublin, and Chełm. Three kilome