Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||miński / miński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Mińsk Mazowiecki / (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Novominsk נאוואמינסק [j. jidysz]; מינסק מאזובייצקי [j. hebrajski]; Миньск-Мазовецки [j. rosyjski]|
Justyna Laskowska /
Mińsk Mazowiecki – a city with county rights in central Poland, in Masovian Province. It lies 41 km east of Warsaw, by the Srebrna River.
The exact beginnings of Jewish settlement here is not known. The first Jews to live in Mińsk came in the 17th century and engaged in alcohol production. In the 18th century, Jews were no longer in Mińsk, although it is probable that some Jews (barber-surgeons or some lessees of inns) still remained in the city and belonged to the kehilla in Węgrów . Larger scale Jewish settlement in Mińsk took place after 1768, following the lifting of restrictions on permanent Jewish residence in the Mazowiecki Province.
Until 1822, Jews who lived in the town belonged to the Kałuszyn kehilla. An independent Mińsk community was established after the kehilla law was abolished and arrangments for synagogue supervision were in place.
By 1867, the local Jewish Community Council had its own synagogue (on ul Karczewska 2), mikvah and a Jewish cemetery situated nearby. It was 1 morgen (1 morgen ≈ 0,56 ha) and 169 rods (1 rod ≈ 5,03 m) in area. Around 1870, Jews established a second cemetery, outside the town, in the direction of Cegłów.
Mińsk synagogue supervision included the city itself and some of the towns in Mińsk county (from 1867, the New Mińsk County) such as Cegłów, Siennica, Latowicz, Iwowe and Jeruzal. The jurisdiction of the Jewish Community Council covered paying rabbi’s living expenses; maintenance of the synagogue, cemetery, mikvah and ritual slaughterhouses; taking care of religious upbringing of youth; providing the faithful with kosher foods; managing communal property and organising charitable activities.
Minsk's first rabbi was Israel Jankiel (last name unknown). He was followed by Menashe, Mosiek Nejman and Majer Selson. At that time, Josek Grynberg deputised for the Mińsk rabbi. In 1835, Szymsio Kligman became the rabbi and held that position for 40 years. He contributed to the development of the community by, among many other things, building a wooden synagogue and apartments for the rabbi and for a scholar – Josek Arson. In 1874, Jechiel Michel Rabinowicz became the rabbi.
Mińsk Jews quickly became interested in Hassidism. By 1873, a tzadik, Jakub Perlow, son of Szymon of Zawichost, had set up his court in Mińsk. In 1896, thanks to&nbs
The origins of the market settlement, called Mieńsko, can be traced back to the 14th century. Mińsk Mazowiecki was granted town privileges in 1421. Another town, Sendomierz, was founded nearby in 1549 and was situated on the other side of the river. Some time after its foundation, Sendomierz merged with Mińsk. A rapid development of the town took place in the 15th and 16th centuries. Periods which seem to be the worst for the history of the town are the 17th century (the Swedish Deluge – the Swedish invasion and occupation of Poland and Lithuania, from 1655 to 1660) and the 18th century. In 1795 Mińsk Mazowiecki found itself in the Austrian partition, and in 1809 became a part of the Duchy of Warsaw. Since 1815 Mińsk was within the boundaries of the Russian partition.
The town began to develop again in the 19th century (at the beginning of the century Mińsk Mazowiecki was a small, agricultural town). In 1810 the town had only 529 inhabitants. In 1816 Mińsk became the capital of Stanisławów County. In 1868 the Russian authorities changed the name of the town into Nowomińsk, and in 1916 the town was called Mińsk Mazowiecki.
After some time, Mińsk became a partly industrial town. A few tanneries, a cloth factory and distillery were established until 1827. The number of people living in the town also increased, there were 770 inhabitants, 260 of which were Jews who constituted therefore 32.5% of the total population. What contributed mainly to the importance of the town was the road-building between Warsaw and Brześć, as well as the building of a Warsaw – Terespol railroad in 1866. Until the end of the 19th century a few bigger industrial plants were built. Among them, there were soap, candle, vinegar and bullet factories. The largest company was the metallurgical plant K.Rudzki and Co. (K. Rudzki and Spółka), which decided to move the production line to the town, whereas the company headquarters remained in Warsaw. The factory produced bridge constructions, railway junctions, gantries, water turbines as well as shells and waggons.
During the interwar period, there were two huge factories (Rudzki and Co. and Fogelnesta), over a dozen industrial plants, many craft workshops and shops. Among the most important events, there were workers strikes and a pogrom (1936).
A ghetto was created i