Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||milicki / milicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Milicz / Milicz (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Militsch [j. niemiecki]|
Milicz – miasto powiatowe, położone na południowym zachodzie Polski, w województwie dolnośląskim. Odległe 58 km na północ od Wrocławia, 322 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy. Przez miasto przepływa rzeka Barycz.
Małgorzata Grzenda /
Milicz is a town located about 55 km. north of Wrocław (German: Breslau). In the Middle Ages, it was probably inhabited by no Jews, however starting from the XVI-th century, due to its location near a significant trade route, Milicz became a stopover for Jewish merchants, heading for Wrocław. It should be thereby mentioned, that the Jews, passing through Milicz, were obliged to pay a special toll. In the second half of the XVII-th century, a few Jewish families made a temporary stop-off in Milicz. The families were mainly expelled from the nearby Krotoszyn and were later allowed to return to the city. The first permanent Jewish settlement in Milicz dates back to th beginning of the XVIII-th century, when the town was settled by Jews, who had special privileges. Their primary source of income was fur and skin-trade. The Jews were all subject to the rabbinate in Głogów (German: Glogau), whereas the municipal statute of the synagogal community in Milicz, stems from 1860. Initially, the number of Jews inhabiting Milicz was small. Between 1794 and 1812, the town was inhabited by 5 to 10 Jewish families, thus maximally by 50 people. The municipality was most numerous in 1848 and 1864, when the total number of its inhabitants amounted respectively to 105 and 197. Starting from 1871, the Jewish community gradually began to decline from 64 members in 1871 to 46 members in 1937. The turn of 1924 and 1925 marked a temporary increase, as the town was then inhabited still by 91 Jews. However in 1939, Milicz and its neighboring areas were inhabited by merly 5 people. It was then when the Jewish community was dissolved. .
Miłosz Gudra /
Milicz was first mentioned in the papal bull of Innocent II of 1136 as Milich. In 1164–1358 it belonged to the Wrocławskie Duchy. It is not known when it was granted town privileges but at the time the seat of the castellan was located there. In 1358 the bishopric sold the town together with the castellany to Duke Konrad I Oleśnicki. During the Piast Oleśnicki rule a castle was erected and then surrounded with a moat.
The last Piast Oleśnicki died in 1492 and the town with the stronghold fell into the hands of Władysław Jagiellończyk, king of Bohemia, who then passed it to Zygmunt Kurzbach. His sons divided the valley of Barycza between themselves. Thus, two lands under the reign of barons were created: Milicki and Żmigrodzki. Having the status of a free state country in Milicz the family of Kurzbach ruled there until 1590, when the last member of the family, Ewa Popelia got married to baron Joachim III Maltzan. The Maltzmans erected, among others a classicistic palace (1790–1799) and set up the first English landscape garden of Silesia in Milicz. They also contributed to the development of the town and the region. Manufactures of cotton and wool, cloth shop and spinning mills were set up.
In 1742 Milicz with the entire Silesia was annexed by Prussia. In 1809 feudal dependency on counts Maltzman was abolished. In 1816 Milicki district was established.
The end of the 19th century brought about, as in case of the entire Prussia, an economic boom and development of infrastructure. Minor industry began to develop in the town, new buildings were erected and communication network expanded. Suffice to say that in 1914 there were as many as three hotels in the town. In 1850 a new town hall was constructed; then water supply and sewage system were set up. In 1875 a railway station within Oleśnica – Chojnice line was opened up. In 1894 Milicz gained a connection with Żmigród via narrow-gauge Żmigrodzko-Milicka District Railway (Trachenberg-Militscher Kreisbahn Aktiengesellschaft), which in 1899 was connected with Wrocławsko-Trzebnicko-Prusicka narrow-gauge railway (Breslau-Trebnitz-Prausnitzer Kleinbahn Aktiengesellschaft). This connection created a direct route to Wrocław and was of great economic and cultural importance. Before the outbreak of the First World War Milicz had 3780 inhabitants. The local castle he