Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||suski / suski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Maków Podhalański / Maków Podhalański (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Maków Podhalański [j. niemiecki]|
Maków Podhalański to miasto położone nad rzeką Skawą, w Beskidzie Makowskim, u stóp Makowskiej Góry, w woj. małopolskim, w powiecie suskim. 46 km na południe od Krakowa, przy drodze krajowej nr 28. Jest siedzibą gminy miejsko-wiejskiej Maków Podhalański, obejmującej 6 sołectw: Białka, Grzechynia, Juszczyn, Kojszówka, Wieprzec i Żarnówka. Przed 1939 r. administracyjnie należał do woj. krakowskiego, a w latach 1975–1998 – do woj. bielskiego.
Anna Rutkowski /
Jews began settling in Maków in the first half of the 19th century. In this period, several families leased and ran wayside inns . No doubt, Jews had come to the town earlier, especially during the horse fairs which were famous throughout the area, but there are no sources which can confirm that fact.
Up to the 1890's, the Jewish population in Maków did not exceed 100. By the end of the century, a total of 45 families lived there. At that time, there was a wooden synagogue and the community was subject to the Jewish Community Council in the nearby Jordanów. That is where the dead were buried, as Maków did not have its own cemetery. This situation continued until the outbreak of World War II and the liquidation of Jewish life in the town.
The Jews of Maków were not rich and were therefore helped by the Jordanów community. Thanks to their efforts, an aid and loan society, Gemilut Chesed, was established which supported artisans and small traders in Maków. Their situation deteriorated even more in 1916 when as the result of a dangerous fire in the town centre, many families suffered. Jewish life had been concentrated around the market square.
Following World War I, conditions for the development of the Jewish community were not favourable. There was a number of anti-Semitic incidents, during which the police intervened. In November 1918, peasants from the surrounding villages looted the houses of several Jewish families in Maków. The perpetrators went before a court and were sentenced to a fine. The authorities also took action against Jewish competition. In 1919, traders in luxury goods and alcohol were required to have the appropriate authorization. This was aimed at limiting the number of Jewish shops in the town .
In the 1920's, the number of Jews in Maków increased to around 200 people, which constituted about 5% of the population. The main source of their livelihood was petty trade and hawking in the surrounding villages. By the end of the 1920's, Jews occupied leading positions in the fields of fabrics, timber and iron materials. Fabric shops were run by Jakub Goldberg, Simon Ornstein and Wolf Lichtman. The owners of timber yards were M. Bruhl, M. Fisher, E. Kühnreich, the Posner brothers, M. Weiss and Arnold Groner, the owner
Anna Rutkowski /
The beginnings of settlement in Maków Podhalański date back to the 13th century, but the first historical references to this town go back to the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. At that time, the area was overgrown with thick forests, and the first settlers were engaged in felling, hunting, fishing in the local streams and shepherding. The forest workers from Maków were obliged to deliver wooden and cooper’s products to the salt mines in Bochnia and Wieliczka.
In 1378, Hanko of Zakliczyn was to give up one piece of land within the Maków estate for felling in favour of Jan Erstos, and, in 1443, the King Władysław Jagiełło transferred the Lanckorona and Maków estates to a rich family from Małopolska, from Brzezie, for their service in the war with the Teutonic Order. The town’s incorporation charter has not survived, but, supposedly, the village was incorporated under the Magdeburg Law. In 1453, there was a parish in Maków, which covered the local hamlets.
The 16th century was the period of further intensive settlement conducted by the Lanckorona starostas. The settlers also included the Vlachs, who brought their developed forms of shepherding and breeding with them. The first granges started to be established, but, because of unfavourable ground and climate conditions, no manorial system was formed here on a larger scale. The population of Maków was mainly engaged in sheep grazing in the local clearings. Apart from agriculture, crafts developed in Maków, and, in particular, shingle production, pottery, coopery and smithery. In 1569, a church was built in the village. In 1590, it was furnished with a painting of Our Lady of Maków, which became famous thanks to the miracles worked by it and attracted large numbers of pilgrims. The wooden structure, with a separate bell tower, was pulled down at the beginning of the 18th century. The next church, which was partially made of brick, was consecrated in 1705, and it was built in 1697-1701.
The development of Maków was impeded during the so-called Swedish Deluge during the Second Northern War (1655-1660). The local people, who were often enlisted for various defensive formations under compulsion, took an active part in the struggles. In 1655, the Lanckorona starosta, Jan Zarzecki, led the units of peasants from Maków and the loca