Ukraina / Волинська область (obwód wołyński)
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||inne / wołyńskie (before 1939)|
|County:||Волинська область [obwód wołyński]/Луцький pайон [rejon łucki] / łucki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Луцьк / Łuck (before 1939)|
|Other names:||לוצק [j. jidysz]; לוצק [j. hebrajski]; Луцьк [j. ukraiński]; Луцк [j. rosyjski]|
Lutsk – town in western Ukraine, administrative centre of Volyn Oblast. It is situated by the Styr River (tributary of the Pripyat).
The Jewish community of Łuck is one of the oldest in Vohlynia. The first reference to Jews residing in Łuck comes from the privileges granted in 1388 by the Lieutenant of Lithuania, Witold, who later became the Grand Duke.
In 1432 Władysław Jagiełło granted Łuck town rights according to the Magdeburg Laws, at the same time abolishing the rights of Jews and Armenians.
In 1495 Jews were expelled from Łuck, as well as of from the entire territory of Lithuania, but in 1504 the community was re-established. In 1507 local Jews were granted privilege by king Zygmunt I Stary which secured their rights.
The community was very impoverished and frequently applied to the Grand Duke for tax reliefs. In 1556, Zygmunt II August, afraid that Jews would leave the town because of their economic situation, equated their rights with the rights of Catholics. Around the year 1569, Jews from Łuck were imprisoned for evading taxes imposed on the community. Their synagogue and houses were sealed.
The political and economic importance of Łuck increased after the establishment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569). The change in the town's position increased the prosperity of Jews, who played an important role in trade and craft of Łuck. They leased state customs, owned breweries and potash factories, they traded in wood and agricultural products and took an active part in town fairs that took place in various towns of the Polish Kingdom. They organized craft guilds (e.g. tailors' guild). Due to competition, conflicts between Jewish and non-Jewish craftsmen were quite frequent. The conflicts also concerned taxes imposed on the Jews.
After including Łuck into Poland in 1569, the rights, earlier conferred upon Jews by the Grand Duke of Lithuania, were confirmed. In 1580, king Stefan Batory equated Jews with Christians on the issue of paying municipal taxes; he also forbade imposition of new taxes without their consent. Jews were also granted the right to control financial reporting, concerning the taxes levied on them.
In 1600, King Zygmunt III granted the community in Łuck the right to self-government of the Jewish district. He also assign
Lutsk is an old Ruthenian city situated on the banks of the Styr River and its tributary, the Giżyca River. It is not known precisely when the city, referred to as the “Great Łuczysko on the Styr River” by the chroniclers, was established. According to some sources, it was established by the Dulebs and Łuczanie in the 7th century. According to other sources, it was established by the Grand Duke of Ruthenia Włodzimierz Światosławowicz around the year 1000.
Originally, Lutsk was inhabited by the Dulebs, Łuczanie, Yotvingians and the Krivichs. Lutsk was a part of the Kievan Rus. It was referred to for the first time in the Ipatiev Chronicle before 1085, when it was already fortified and managed to withstand a siege by the King of Poland, Bolesław the Bold. In 1097, the Grand Duke of Kiev, Świętopełk Iziasławowicz, handed Lutsk over to the Prince of Chernigov, Dawid Światosławowicz, who was soon banished by the Volhynian Duke, Dawid Igoriewicz. From that time until the mid-12th century, Lutsk belonged to the Duchy of Volhynia despite the claims of the Dukes of Kiev, and, subsequently, it was incorporated into the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. In 1240, it was ransacked by the Tatars, but it was soon reconstructed thanks to the efforts of the Dukes Daniel and Vasilko Romanovich. For the next 100 years, the city was the capital of the Duchy of Lutsk, and, afterwards, it was conquered by the troops of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas. After four years, Lutsk was taken over by the Prince Liubartas.
At the end of the 14th century, Lutsk gained more significance than Volodymyr-Volynsky. Soon, whole districts inhabited by Germans, Poles and Lithuanians appeared in the area. In 1429, Lutsk was the venue for a gathering of dukes, which was aimed at establishing an alliance against the Turks. The participants included the King of Poland, Władysław Jagiełło, the German Emperor, Sigismund of Luxemburg, the Grand Prince of Moscow, Vasily II Vasiliyevich the Blind, Metropolitan Fotij, the King of Denmark, the papal legate, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, the voivode of Wallachia, the Crimean khan and the Byzantine legate in addition to other independent rulers.
In 1432, the city was granted it urban charter under Magdeburg Law. In 1440, Lutsk began to be ruled by the Grand Duke