Polska / lubuskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||lubuskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||żarski / Crossen (before 1939)|
|Community:||Lubsko / Sommerfeld (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Sommerfeld [j. niemiecki]|
The city of Lubsko is placed in Żarski administrative district in Lubuskie province. The city is located on the Lubsza river.
Natalia Lech /
There is no information on the date and circumstances in which Jews appeared in Lubsko. Their settlement is considered to be rather late, as the first mentions date back to the post Napoleonic era. During the peak time of the community’s development, which falls back to the second half of the 19th century, it numbered not more than 50 Jews. According to the 1844 census, there were 26 Jews, whereas the 1864 – 47 Jews. Most probably the community never had a synagogue but only a house of prayer. After 1850, a Jewish cemetery was established.
The history of the small Jewish community in Lubsko was remembered mainly thanks to its outstanding member – a hat manufacturer, Wilhelm Gattel, who lived in the first half of the 20th century. He established a factory which employed more than 100 workers and in 1925 became one of the main employers in the town (apart from the railway industry). Gattel was also a local activist and member of the town council who provided for the fire department and the library. In 1944, he was imprisoned and murdered by the Gestapo, and later buried in the Jewish cemetery. He was the last member of the Jewish community in Lubsko.
- K.D. Alicke, Guben (Brandenburg), [in:] Aus der Geschichte jüdischer Gemeinden im deutschen Sprachraum [online] http://www.jüdische-gemeinden.de/index.php/gemeinden/e-g/797-guben-brandenburg [accessed: 12 January 2015].
First historical records of Lubsko as a settlement come from 1253. In 1283 the Margrave of Meissen Henry the Illustrious granted Lubsko city rights according to Magdeburg rights and an array of additional privileges.The city’s economy was based on craft. Cloth and linen manufacturing, pottery, brewing, and shoemaking played an especially important role. In 1343 the Margrave Louis the Elder exempted the city from custom duties on the territory of the Eastern March. In 1350 Lubsko received a watermill on Lubica river from Louis the Elder.
In 1370 Lubsko bought adjoining villages – Dobrawa and Hinków. In XIV century Lubsko came under the power of Dukes of Głogów. A mention of a hospital of The Holy Spirit situated at the place of today’s shopping centre on Reja street comes from 27th May 1401.
In 1411 the city was awarded the right to hammer coins called Halerze. Lubsko was populated mostly by Lusatian people who remained in the area till XVIIIth century. In 1429 Lubsko wa raided by the Hussites. In 1482 the city fell into the hands of the Brandenburg rulers, and thus it came under German governance which lasted until the end of the Second World War.
In 1496 the city was destroyed by a fire, an epidemic from 1527 cost lives of 1100 inhabitants.
In 1534 Lubsko became a property of the Pacek family. Year 1597 brings yet another big fire of the city. In 1854 the first printing house was opened in Lubsko.
The first railroad on the Berlin-Wrocław route opened in Lubsko in 1846.A connection with the city of Krosno Odrzańskie was added in 1913.
The year 1851 is the onset of textiles export to the United States. The following year the first steam machine powered carpenter’s shop was opened by August Kuhn in the street named today Lubelska street .In 1853 textiles’ export encompasses England, Italy, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Four years later a municipal gas company was founded.
Only a few buildings were damaged during the Second World War. In 1945 Lubsko was taken by the Soviet forces.
In 1954 the city became a seat of province authorities.