Lubań (woj. dolnośląskie)
Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||lubański / lubański (before 1939)|
|Community:||Lubań / Lubań (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Lauban [j.niemiecki]|
Lubań – miasto powiatowe położone na południowym zachodzie Polski, województwo dolnośląskie. Odległe 159 km na zachód od Wrocławia, 513 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy. Leży nad Kwisą.
Małgorzata Grzenda /
Lubań lies around 20km South of Bolesławiec (Bunzlau). After 1850 there was a small Jewish community of only 50 members. In 1930s the community became to small to function on its own and was thus resolved. From then on, all the remaining Jewish families from the town were subordinate to the Community in Zgorzelec (Görlitz) .
Miłosz Gudra /
Lubań Śląski is one of the oldest towns in the region of Silesia. At first, the settlement was a part of Milsk, which, as a dowry, came under the control of the Margraves of Brandenburg. Lubań was granted Magdeburg rights in the 13th century (1220?). Thanks to its location, it was often visited by merchants from all around Europe. The main branches of the town's industry were the production of cloth, cotton, and industrial ceramics and the exploitation of metal ores, gold, carbon, and basalt.
Throughout its history, the town was under the control of numerous different countries. In 1319, it was a part of the Duchy of Jawor controlled by the Piasts. In 1337, the entire region of Silesia (including Lubań) was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia. Later on, in 1346, the town joined the Lusatian League, created under the auspices of Bohemia; the alliance was only dissolved after the Congress of Vienna. In 1815, following Napoleon's demise, the town became a part of the Prussian province of Silesia.
In the 19th century, the construction of a railway line running through the town gave Lubań an opportunity to develop. It became a railway hub, with routes connecting the town with Zgorzelec and Węgliniec (1865), Jelenia Góra (1866), and Leśna (1896). Lubań gained special significance due to it forming a part of the Silesian Mountain Railway; moreover, the town housed its main workshops. The Central Line was one of the first railways to be electrified (first decades of the 20th century).
In February and March 1945, in consequence of heavy battles between Germans and Soviet, 60% of the town was destroyed. After the war, Lubań was incorporated into Poland. It remained an important railway centre; the local Rail Rolling Stock Repair Workshops operated until 2000. In 1999, the town became a county capital in the Dolnośląskie Province.
Heimatbuch des Kreises Lauban in Schlesien, Seyboldsdorf-Vilsbiburg 1966.