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Polska / łódzkie

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Province:łódzkie / łódzkie (before 1939)
County:łódzki / łódzki (before 1939)
Community:Łódź / Łódź (before 1939)
Other names:לודז' [j. hebrajski]; לאדזש‎ [j. jidysz]; Litzmannstadt [j. niemiecki]
51.7788° N / 19.4714° E
51°46'43" N / 19°28'16" E



Other names of the town:
Litzmannstadt [German] (between 11 April 1940 and January 1945).

Łódź is a province capital located in central Poland.

Łódź is crossed by 18 larger and smaller rivers and streams: Ner, Łódka (former name: Ostroga) and their tributaries: Bałutka, Dobrzynka, Gadka, Jasień and its tributary Karólewka, Olechówka and its tributary Augustówka, Jasieniec – tributary of Ner, the source section of Bzura and its first right tributary Łagiewniczanka, Sokołówka and its tributaries Brzoza, Aniołówka and Wrząca, Zimna Woda (tributary of Aniołówka) – tributaries of Bzura, and (when taking into account also Nowosolna) Miazga (tributary of Wolbórka). These are small flows and in the city centre, mostly hidden in underground canals.

Łódź is the crossing point of major railways: from Warsaw, Gdańsk, Poznań, and Częstochowa. 



Polish Roots in Israel project

Litzmannstadt's Jews | unknown

The beginning of a Jewish settlement in Łódź dates back to the 18th century – the period of decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The town did not have the de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege. The first Jewish settlers were Daniel Layzerowicz – a baker, and Abram Lewkowicz – a tailor. Both lived in Łódź already in 1785. Mosiek a.k.a. Mojżesz Pryntz from Lutomiersk settled there in 1791. The first Łódź Jews who were wealthy and educated in the Scripture were: Pinkus Zajdler who arrived in 1795 from Przedbórz, Pinkus Sonenberg who arrived in 1797 from Łęczyca, and Lewek Heber who arrived to Łódź in 1801 from Lutomiersk. All of them played an important role as the subsequent parnases of the kehilla.

The Jewish settlement in the town prior to the second partition of Poland did not play a particularly significant role. Among the total population of 190 people, only 11 were Jewish. This undoubtedly  resulted from the town’s character, rendered by historians as “agricultural Łódź,” being a particularly unattractive town for settlers. It was quite significant for the Jewish settlement that Łódź, until the second partition of Poland, was owned by bishops. In 1796-1798, Łódź became a government town.

That period saw lively economic development of the town. In 1793-1808, the number of inhabitants almost doubled. The number of Jews increased over five times, from 11 to 58. In 1807, the Łódź kehilla did not have its own rabbi, but the role of a mohel was already performed by Lewek Heber, his deputy being Pinkus Sonenberg. They were, however, banned from performing their function after a complaint had been brought to the sub-prefect of the Zgierz County. Dawid Herszkowicz, who was also a cantor, was elected as successor to Heber. The first known elders of the Łódź kehilla were: Pinkus Zajdler and Mojżesz Fajtlowicz. The first recorded kehilla elections took place on 12 November 1810. The candidates were: Pinkus Sonenberg, Mendel Moszkowicz, Lewek Heber, and Mojżesz Fajtlowicz. Elected to the positions of kehilla elders were Pinkus Sonenberg, with 12 votes, and Mendel Moszkowicz, with 10 votes. It was they who participated in creation of the first Jewish cemetery in Łódź. Until the 1810 elections, the dead were buried at the neighbouring cemeteries in Lutomiersk and Stryków. In 1811, the kehilla elders made an agreement with Adam L





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