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Łódź

Polska / łódzkie

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Summary

Province:łódzkie / łódzkie (before 1939)
County:Łódź / (before 1939)
Community:Łódź / (before 1939)
Other names:
 
GPS:
51.7788° N / 19.4714° E
51°46'43" N / 19°28'16" E

Location

Shemesh

Pałac Izraela Poznańskiego | K. Bielawski

Other names of the town:
Litzmannstadt [German] (between 11 April 1940 and January 1945).


Łódź is a province capital located in central Poland.

Łódź is crossed by 18 larger and smaller rivers and streams: Ner, Łódka (former name: Ostroga) and their tributaries: Bałutka, Dobrzynka, Gadka, Jasień and its tributary Karólewka, Olechówka and its tributary Augustówka, Jasieniec – tributary of Ner, the source section of Bzura and its first right tributary Łagiewniczanka, Sokołówka and its tributaries Brzoza, Aniołówka and Wrząca, Zimna Woda (tributary of Aniołówka) – tributaries of Bzura, and (when taking into account also Nowosolna) Miazga (tributary of Wolbórka). These are small flows and in the city centre, mostly hidden in underground canals.

Łódź is the crossing point of major railways: from Warsaw, Gdańsk, Poznań, and Częstochowa. 

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History

Polish Roots in Isreal project

Litzmannstadt's Jews | unknown

The beginnings of the Jewish settlement in Łódź date back to the 18th century – the period of decline of the Republic of Poland. The town did not have the de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege. The first Jewish settlers were Daniel Layzerowicz – a baker and Abram Lewkowicz – a tailor. Both already lived in Łódź in 1785. Mosiek a.k.a. Mojżesz Pryntz from Lutomiersk settled here in 1791. The first Łódź Jews who were wealthy and educated in the Scripture were: Pinkus Zajdler who arrived in 1795 from Przedbórz, Pinkus Sonenberg who arrived in 1797 from Łęczyca and Lewek Heber who arrived to Łódź in 1801 from Lutomiersk. All of them played an important role as the subsequent Parnases of the kehilla.

The Jewish settlement in the town until the second partition of Poland which took place in 1793 was not particularly significant. Among the total population of 190 people, only 11 were Jewish. This was undoubtedly influenced by the character of the town rendered by historians as “agricultural Łódź”. Łódź at that time was not a particularly attractive town for settlers. Rather significant for Jewish settlement was the fact that Łódź, until the second partition of Poland, was owned by the bishops. In 1796-1798 Łódź became a government town. This period saw lively economic development of the town. In 1793-1808 the number of inhabitants almost doubled. The number of Jews increased over five times, from 11 to 58. In 1807 the Łódź kehilla did not have its own rabbi yet, but the function of a mohel was already held by Lewek Heber, and his deputy was Pinkus Sonenberg. They were, however, removed from their positions after a complaint brought to the Deputy Prefect of the Zgierz County. Dawid Herszkowicz, simultaneously a cantor, was elected as a successor to Heber. The first known elders of the Łódź kehilla were: Pinkus Zajdler and Mojżesz Fajtlowicz. The first known kehilla elections took place on 12 November 1810. The candidates were: Pinkus Sonenberg, Mendel Moszkowicz, Lewek Heber and Mojżesz Fajtlowicz. Elected to the positions of kehilla elders were Pinkus Sonenberg, with 12 votes and Mendel Moszkowicz, with 10 votes. It was them who participated in creation of the first Jewish cemetery in Łódź. Until the 1810 elections the dead were buried on the neighbouring cemeteries in Lutomiersk and Stryków. In 1811 the kehilla elders made an agre

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