Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||limanowski / limanowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Limanowa / Limanowa (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Ilmenau [j. niemiecki]|
Anna Rutkowski /
Limanowa – a city in soutern Poland, in Małopolska Province, in Limanowa County. It lies by the Sowlina stream, 63 km southeast of Krakow and 422 km southwest of Warsaw.
The first written records of Jewish presence in Limanowa date back to the year 1640. According to the sources dating back to that year the taproom lease of the innkeeper Izrael Izaakowicz was then cancelled. The innkeeper was accused of selling poor quality and overpriced beer and vodka. It remains unknown, whether or not he was expelled from the town. The Jewish population of the town grew steadily. Some of the Jews converted to Christianity. According to the parochial records, a Jew called Michał Różański converted to Catholicism in the middle of 18th century, so did a young Jewish girl in 1761. The Jewish population largely influenced the development of the town, having a huge impact on its social and economic life. At the end of the 18th century the domination of Jewish population, especially in the inn-keeping and brewing businesses, becomes clearly visible. The family of a brewery tenant lived in town in 1769, sources say, that the tenant was of Jewish origin. This led to frequent conflicts with other town inhabitants, as the owners of the Limanowa estate,the Dydyńscy family, clearly preferred Jews as tenants of taproom leases. The inhabitants sued the estate owners in 1789 in order to render their taproom rights useless, but the decision of the authorities did not support their pledge. There was one Christian-owned inn in town though. The remaining Jews lived from fur making, fur preparation, butchery and bakery. According to an official register, dating back to the first years of Austrian rule, one Jew even lived as a farmer. The times of Austrian occupation brought further economic development. Two influential Jewish families- the Goldfinger and the Blaugrund family, settled in Limanowa at the beginning of 19th century. Around 30 families lived in the town by the middle of the century. Their main source of income was grain, fur and feather trade at the local fairs and import of lime from Pogórze near Cracow. Three Jews were innkeepers, there was a tailor, soap maker, trafficker, tax collector and cart owner as well. The rapid inflow of new inhabitants started (as in other regions of Galicia) with the opening of the rail line. The line connecting Nowy Sącz with Sucha Beskidzka was opened in the years 1884-1885, attracting to Limanova a new wave of settlers, both Christian and Jewish. Investments carried out in town and nearby made that wave stable
The oldest sources mention Limanowa around 1476, but the settling in that region dates back to the Neolithic ages. Limanowa, at its very beginnings, was called “Ilmanowa”, from the name of a German settler – Ilman. The influx of German settlers there was closely connected with the Tatar invasions that decimated the local population. Around 1520 the village was bough by the Cracow Stolnik (a court office in Poland, responsible for serving the royal table, later a honorary office) Achacy Jordan of the Słupsk family. The village was granted town rights by the location privilege of King Zygmunt August on April 12th, 1565. The town was exempted from state tax paying for thirty years. It had an agricultural character at the beginning, but markets and fairs played an important role in the life of the town. The majority of inhabitants lived exclusively from farming. Small crafts, mainly connected with clothing, food, metal works and woodworks also developed. Trade was an important branch of the economy, especially export of the local beer to Hungary. Numerous fires and wars halted the development of the town, but the biggest damage was done by epidemics, especially cholera.
After the partitions of Poland Limanowa was incorporated into the Nowy Sącz cyrkuł (Austrian county). The Austrian administration proved beneficial for the development of the town and the whole region. The Limanowa county was created in 1866, giving the town more prestige. In 1883 the court administration of the county was divided into two separate counties , one with the seat in Limanowa and the latter one in Mszana Dolna. In the 19th century Limanowa developed into a typical town, with the first brick houses built in the center. In 1884-1885 the development was further boosted by the opening of the railway line from Nowy Sącz to Chabówka and Sucha, with Limanowa situated along the route. A large crude oil refinery was launched in 1907-1909 in Swoliny near Limanowa by a French company. Around that time the local brewery was modernized, and the sawmill enlarged. Prior to the First World War several cultural organizations were active in town: The Society for Public School, a library and the Landowner’s Choir and Theatre.
At the outbreak of the First World War, in the region of Limanowa, bloody clashes between Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies occurred. Józe