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Legnica

Polska / dolnośląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:Legnicki / Liegnitz (before 1939)
Community:Legnica / Liegnitz (before 1939)
Other names:Liegnitz [j. niemiecki]; לגניצה [j. hebrajski]
 
GPS:
51.2072° N / 16.1580° E
51°12'26" N / 16°09'28" E

Location

wojciech wojtasiak

Legnica – district town in southwestern Poland, Dolnośląskie Province. It is located 71 km west of Wrocław, 433 km south-west of Warsaw, by the Kaczawa river and its tributary, the Czarna Woda.

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History

Tamara Włodarczyk

Zydzi w Legnicy po wojnie do 1961  | Mira Wayne

The beginnings of Jewish settlement in Legnica are not completely clear. According to Legnica history researchers Friedric Emanueul Fischer and Carl Friedrich Stuckardt, Jews settled in Legnica ca. 1170. On the other hand, Marcus Brann, who researches the history of Silesian Jews, found this information very questionable. It was not until 1301 that any documented references confirmed the presence of Jews in the town. One of these documents, dated 1314, mentions “a Jewish town” of Legnica on the “Czarna Woda River.” That Jewish settlement encompassed a few streets, starting at the old castle bridge, along Nowa Street, across the castle square, reaching deep inside the castle garden and then beyond Głogowska Gate. It had a synagogue, a Jewish school and a cemetery. An account from 1338 mentions a Jewish street situated by the coal market.

The first document on the Jews of Legnica dates back to 1447. Duchess of Legnica Elżbieta granted the town full authority (all rights and courts) which her ancestors had held over the Jewish street situated in front of the castle. In 1447, a dispute arose between Duchess Elżbieta and Jewish bankers, who demanded that she repay a loan. The case resulted in a pogrom of Jews and the burning down their district. In the mid-15th century, a series of pogroms aimed at the Jewish population took place in Silesia as a result of the preachings of a famous Franciscan monk,John of Capistrano. In the sermon delivered in 1453 in Wrocław, he accused the Jews of theft and of desecrating the Host. A series of trials followed. Jews from many Silesian cities found themselves officially indicted and executions took place in Wrocław, Legnica, and Świdnica. On 5 August 1453, Jews were burned at the stake in Legnica. Jewish property was confiscated and the 318 Legnica Jews who had survived persecution were expelled from the town. These events brought an end to the medieval Jewish community of Legnica.

Jews only returned to the town in the 19th century. The Prussian King's Edict of Tolerance,More

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