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Polska / małopolskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere


Province:małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)
County:krakowski grodzki / krakowski grodzki (before 1939)
Community:Kraków / Kraków (before 1939)
Other names:Krakau [j. niemiecki]; קראָקע [j. jidysz]; קרקוב [j. hebrajski]
50.0632° N / 19.9436° E
50°03'47" N / 19°56'36" E


Anna Wilk

Kraków –  town in southern Poland, Małopolskie Province, Kraków District. It is located 295 km south-west of Warsaw. It is situated on both banks of the Vistula River, at the peripheries of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, the Nidziańska Syncline, the Kraków Gate and the Sandomierz Basin.



Edyta Gawron

sceny z życia ulicznego w Krakowie; kataryniarz | nieznany

The exact date of Jews settling in Kraków is difficult to determine. Based on sources from 1028, mentioning two Jewish merchants travelling towards Ruthenia and offering their wares to the Jewish community council in Kraków, one may assume that a Jewish presence in Kraków extends back to as early as the first half of the 11th century. At the end of the 11th century, Prague was hit by a wave of pogroms provoked by crusaders. Bohemian chronicler, Cosmas of Prague, stated that some of the Jews were forced to convert to Christianity while the rest fled to Hungary and Poland. Even though the name “Kraków” is not mentioned, one may suspect that most of the refugees chose this particular city as a destination because living conditions were relatively safe (in addition to being the place of residence of the ruler, the city was notable for being located away from the route frequented by crusaders).

The first mention of a Jewish presence in Kraków appears in the chronicle of Wincenty Kadłubek (also known as Vincentius de Cracovia). The chronicler noted that during the reign of Mieszko III Stary as the Duke of Kraków (1173-1177), a Jew was assaulted, a crime for which the perpetrators were put on trial for “sacrilege.” The legal qualification of this act was the consequence of the privilege granted to Jews, who, at the time, were considered to be the “servants of the Treasury.” An assault on any Jew was thus tantamount to a violation of ducal law (ius ducale) – the provision was included in the privilege granted to Jews in 1157 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, later also adopted in certain parts of Poland.

Nonetheless, it was only in 1287 when any name of a Jew residing in Kraków was first recorded. His name was Chranisz, and he was murdered by Jakub, most likely a burgher from Kraków, whose house was then





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