Kostrzyn nad Odrą
Polska / lubuskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||lubuskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||gorzowski ziemski / Königsberg Nm. (before 1939)|
|Community:||Kostrzyn nad Odrą / Küstrin (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Küstrin [j. niemiecki]|
The city of Kostrzyn is located in Gorzowski administrative district in Lubuskie province. It is located in the area where river Warta joins river Odra, in the borderland region of Gorzowska Dell.
Kostrzyn nad Odrą is located ca. 37 miles west of Gorzów Wielkopolski (Landsberg.) The major part of the town is part of Polish territory, the rest belongs to Germany. In the 16th c. the town was rebuilt into a fortress, within whose walls Jews were allowed to stay only for a limited period of time. It was not until 1810-1815 when first Jewish families could settle down there. In 1849 there were only 80 Jews living in Kostrzyn, but in 1852 its population increased up to 111. In 1880 the community, inhabited by 222 members, was most populated in its entire history. In the following years there were still many inhabitants, it kept dwindling systematically, however. 184 Jews lived in Kostrzyn in 1890, in the year of 1900 they were only 143. In the late 19th c. a big part of trade was under control of Jewish merchants, who occupied themselves with clothing, cereal and cattle trade, which propelled the town’s economy.
Beginning in 1902 also Jews living in nearby Słońsk (Sonnenburg) became members of the community in Kostrzyn, however it did not influence its population, which in 1910 was made up of 115 members. It was not before 1925 though that the Jewish populace went up to 141 persons. When national socialists came to power in Kostrzyn, the same as in other towns, on April 1, 1933, Jewish inhabitants and their shops were boycotted. Almost all exhibition panes were broken and some shops got plundered. The same year the Jewish population shrank to 96 persons. In the beginning, town dwellers sympathized with persecuted Jews, one year later, however, as a result of intensive anti-Semitic campaign launched by national socialists, hostility towards Jews intensified. SA (Sturmabteiling) squads equipped with cameras kept guard in front of Jewish shops to discourage potential customers from shopping there. A local report, dated May 4, 1935, has been preserved and reads as follows:
In 1935, March 20, at the meeting called by a leader of Jewish community in Kostrzyn, doctor Landau, former attorney, presently orator and owner of a law office, stated that it was 3000 years ago when the seventh day was established a day off for Jews, …. and other nations did the same borrowing the custom from Jewish tradition. The Jew, who acted against the Roman Empire, proved his bravery, also in other wars. Other cou
The first record of Kostrzyn fortified settlement dates back to 1232. In 1261 the settlement became a part of Brandenburg. Around the year 1300 Kostrzyn was granted town privileges under the name of Cüstrin. At the turn of XVth and XVI century the city developed to become an important trading centre. Between 1535-1571 Cüstrin was a dwelling place of the margrave Jan Hohenzollern. In 1956 the city became the capital of Neumark. As a result, a castle was constructed. In time it was rebuilt and converted into powerful fortress. In the years of 1806-1814 Cüstrin was occupied by the French troops.
During Second World War , between 1943-1945 there was a subcamp of concentration camp in Sachsenhausen located in the nearby village of Drzewice. In march 1945 Cüstrin was taken by Soviet army. As an outcome of the fights 95% of city buildings were destroyed. After 1945 the city was renamed Kostrzyn.