Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||kędzierzyńsko-kozielski / Kosel (before 1939)|
|Community:||Kędzierzyn-Koźle / Kosel (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Kandrzin-Kojźly [j. śląski]|
Kandrzin-Cosel [j. niemiecki]
Haydebreck O.S. [lata 1934-1945]
Kandřín-Kozlí [j. czeski]
Кендзежин-Козле [j. rosyjski]
The town Kedzierzyn-Kozle is a district seat in the Opole Province. It is located in the south – east part of the Opole Province, in the central part of Raciborski Valley, on the Odra River and its right bank tributary- the Klodnica, as well as on the Gliwice Canal.
Jews began to settle in Kozle before 1373. They usually came from the West and brought with them Western influences on social and political life. They also introduced new customs, religious traditions and the language of Ashkenazi Jews. The Hebrew word אַשְׁכְּנָזִים, i.e. Ashkenazi refers to Germany as the country from which they came.
From the beginning of the second half of the 14th century comes an interesting record of Duke Konrad II from Oleśnica who used violence to steal money from a Jewish woman from Koźle. In conseuence, in 1356 the Duke of Cieszyn, Przemysław, sued the Duke of Oleśnica and Koźle. The investigation indicated that the stolen money belonged to a Jew from Pyskowiece, which was subject to the Duke of Cieszyn. .
In the 15th century, the majority of the Jews earned their money from trade and giving loans to the Silesian dukes. At these times in all Christian Europe there was a canonical ban on interest rates from financial loans. Some Jews ran small shops and workshops. The most famous Jew was Abraham from Koźle, who at the beginning of the 15th century had a financial business in Trzebnica .
At the beginning of 16th century competition between Jewish and Christian merchants intensified in Silesia. Jewish wealth caused increasing discontent and tension among townsmen. They filed numerous complaints against Silesian Jews to the tsarist authorities in Vienna. The situation made the general alderman of Silesia, Wrocław Bishop Jakub von Salza, turn to the king of Hungary and Bohemia with a request to issue an edict on the expulsion of Jews from Duchy of Opole and Racibórz.
In 1559 Emperor Ferdinand I Habsburg issued an edict ordering all Jews to leave the Habsburg’s hereditary lands, including Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia. From that moment the Jews were officially not allowed to settle down in Silesia. In reality the edict was not commonly obeyed. Still, the Jews could settle in indicated enclaves such as Głogów and Biała Prudnicka in Silesia and Osobłóda in Opawa Silesia .
In this way the edict embraced also Kozle and the nearby villages. This edict blocked the Jews’ efforts to settle down in Kozle after the plague epidemic from 1559.
Life within the Jewish community of Opole-Racibórz area under the Habsburg rule in 16th c., was regulated in 1561 by the so called &l
The Opolanie and Goleszyce Tribes settled down in the area along the upper Odra River at the turn of the 8th and 9th centuries. The first source information about a fortified settlement Kosle comes from „Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum”, commonly known as Gall Anonim’s Chronicle (written in the years 1112-1116). The settlement must have existed earlier, as in 1106 it was destroyed by a fire.
The town’s favorable position at the intersection of the trade routes from Prague and Opawa to Bytom, Wroclaw and Cracow positively influenced its economic development. In about 1281 Kosle was granted town rights under German law. The neighboring villages Kedzierzyn (founded in 1283), Klodnica (founded in 1303) and Slawiecice (founded in 1245, gained temporary town rights in 1260) also flourished. In the years 1281-1282 the Opole Principality was divided and Kosle with the neighboring villages became part of the Bytom-Kosle Principality. In 1327 Prince Vladislaus from Bytom (1277-1352) administered an oath of fealty to the King of Bohemia, and as a result Kosle had passed under Czech rule and shared the political fate of Silesia. In 1396 and 1454 the town suffered severe damages from fires.
In 1526 the King of Bohemia and Hungary- Louis II the Jagiellonian (1506-1526) had died without an heir, and as a consequence the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Habsburg succeeded to the throne of Bohemia. Kosle became part of the Habsburg monarchy. The city walls of Kosle embraced 170 houses in the first part of the 16th century, and the town’s population amounted to 1,000 inhabitants. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), in 1642 the Swedish Army had invaded and completely destroyed Kosle, which was then not able to recover from the economic downfall till the 18th century. In 1741 during the War of the Austrian Succession the Prussian Army had occupied Kosle, which was subsequently incorporated into Prussia in 1742. The town’s name was changed to Cosel and almost immediately the big defense fortifications began to be built, creating the Cosel Fortress. In 1787 there were 1,710 inhabitants in Cosel and 1,300 military men. Within the years 1792-1821 the Klodnicki Canal was built, which connected the Odra River (in the area near Kozle) with the industrial district of Zabrze and Gliwice. The construction of the