Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||kamiennogórski / Landeshut (before 1939)|
|Community:||Kamienna Góra / Landeshut (before 1939)|
Landeshut in Schlesien [j. niemiecki]
Tamara Włodarczyk /
Kamienna Góra is located in the Lower Silesia Province, and is the capital of the Kamienna Góra District. The city is situated in the centre of Kamienna Góra basin, which is a part of Lubawa Gate, and on the slopes of Czarny Las [Black Forest] and the Góry Krucze in the Middle Sudety, on the Bóbr River, at the mouth of its right tributary – Zadrna. Kamienna Góra is a significant industrial, trade and cultural centre.
Population (in 2007) – 21, 266 people
The first record of Jews in Kamienna Góra comes from the 14th century when there was both an official Jewish community and a synagogue in the town. In the 15th century, after numerous anti-Semitic riots that swept through Lower Silesia, Jews from Kamienna Góra were sent into exile, just as in other Lower Silesian towns. They came back no earlier than in the 19th century.
In 1812, (after proclamation of the Emancipation Edict) Jews gained the right to settle in Kamienna Góra. Despite the fact that there were few Jewish settlers, in 1821 a religious community was founded. The first services were held in a house of prayer at 21 Friedrich Street. (now Mickiewicza Street) The synagogue was built with Jewish society funds. It was consecrated on the 12 May 1858 in the presence of government members and district and city authorities. It was a detached house at 21 Wallstrasse (Wojska Polskiego Avenue), and next to it, at number 22, a community center was built in 1866. It was used as a school and a board room. In 1864 the Jewish community in Kamienna Góra gained autonomy and a legal presence, and it included the whole Kamienna Góra district as well as Bolków. The biggest number of Jews was recorded in Kamienna Góra in 1884 at 177 people.
One of the most eminent representatives of this society was a councelor named F. V. Grunfeld, the owner of a flax and spinning mill established in 1862. He is buried with his wife in a graveyard in Kamienna Góra.
Gradually, the number of Jewish community members decreased to 74 people in 1933, and only 34 remained active members. In 1932 the president of the Synagogue Community in Kamienna Góra was Alfred Dobschutzer, and members of the administration included Leonard Peritz, Siegfried Barasch, Georg Liebrecht and Philipp Falkenstein. The last mentioned became a preacher and also taught at a Jewish religious school. The community did ritual slaughter and organized lessons in religion for children. There were also traditional Jewish organizations in service – Chewra Kadisza, founded in 1928 and having 20 members in the beginning of the 1930s of the 20th century (president – Fred Falkenstein), and Israelite Association of Women (Israelitischer Frauenverein), founded in 1857, and in the 1930s having 22 members
Tamara Włodarczyk /
First written documents referring to the city of date back to the first half of the 13th century. At the beginning it was a market village located at the crossing of two communication routes. The first linked Prague with Gdańsk through Lubawa Gate, while the second led from the West to the East along valleys. The very first information about Kamienna Góra comes from 1249 and concerns a permission which was given to Benedictines from Krzeszów to reorganize a fair village "Landishute" into a town incorporated under Magdeburg Law.
Kamienna Góra was granted city rights in 1292 during the rule of the Duke of Świdnica, Bolko I. He built a castle in place of the original wooden watchtower (1286), and transformed the settlement at the foot of the castle into a town under Magdeburg Law.
Dynamic economic growth of the town took place during the rule of the grandson of the King Władysław Łokietek, known as the Duke Bolko II of Świdnica. He confirmed and extended the city rights in 1334. Thanks to the Piast dynasty of Świdnica and Jawor Kamienna Góra became a very important craft and trade centre and also a border fortress at the end of the XIV century.
The Duchy of Świdnica and Jawor, as the last in Silesia, was annexed by the Czech King Wacław IV at the end of the 14th century. In 1526 the Czech Kingdom along with Silesia (and Kamienna Góra) came into the possession of the Habsburgs. Their reign in Silesia, which lasted over 200 years, ended in 1742 after the first Silesian War. Silesia and Kamienna Góra came under Prussian rule until 1945.
Clothing business started to develop from the 14th century due to the good climate and soil conditions in Kamienna Góra. Flax weaving developed from 16th century as well. In the 17th and 18th centuries the t