Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||miasto na prawach powiatu / chrzanowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Jaworzno / Jaworzno (before 1939)|
יאבוז'נה [j. hebrajski]
Javořno [j. czeski]
Явожно [j. rosyjski]
Jaworzno is a city situated in the eastern part of the Silesian province. It lies to the east of the junction of the Biała Przemsza and Przemsza Rivers on the Silesian Upland.
Jewish settlement in Jaworzno began midway through the 18th century. In 1748, fifteen Jewish families lived here. In 1886, there were already 406 Jews and, in 1900, 955 Jews.
In 1910, 1,325 Jews lived in Jaworzno comprising 10.1% of the total population. In 1913, twelve Jews were among the members of the City Council which was one-third of the Council membership. This was due, in large measure, to the fact that Jews comprised the better-educated and wealthier group among the city’s inhabitants.
In the autumn of 1939, 1,852 Jews lived in the city, comprising 8% of the total inhabitants.
In September 1939, Jaworzno was occupied by the German army. In the spring of 1940, the Germans transported numerous Jews from Katowice, Chorzów and Siemianowice to Jaworzno. In November 1940,the Germans forbade Jews entry into public parks. On 12-13 July 1942, all the Jews (2,092 people) were transported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.
The last two Jewish families were transported on 1 August 1943 – they joined the “death transport” of Jews from Będzin.
A plaque commemorating Jaworzno Jews murdered during the World War II has been unveiled.
The first mention of the Jaworzno village was in 1229. From the 13th Century to 1790, it was the property of the Bishop of Kraków.
In 1767, the coal mine was opened.
In 1795, Jaworzno found itself annexed to Austria. At the junction of the Biała Przemsza and Przemsza Rivers, there existed the so-called “Triangle of the Three Emperors” which defined the borders between Austria, Russia and Prussia.
Between 1809 and 1815, Jaworzno was temporarily within the Warsaw Principality and between 1815 and 1846 within the Kraków Republic.
At the beginning of the 19th Century, mining developed further in Jaworzna.
Pit-coal was extracted here (84% of the production of all Galicia) as well as silver, lead, zinc ore and iron ore.
In 1847, the construction of a railway line contributed to the further development of Jaworzna. The local railway junction became an important transport hub between Austria, Russia and Prussia. In 1898, a electric power plant and metallurgy works were established.
In 1901, Jaworzno gained city-status.
During the inter-War period, Jaworzno fell within the Polish state.
In September 1939, Jaworzno was occupied by the German army. In 1943, the Germans established a sub-camp of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp here. Its prisoners worked as slave-labourers in the mines. British and Soviet prisoners-of-war from the Łambinowice prison camp also worked here. In January 1945, the city was occupied by the Soviet army.
In 1947, on the site of the former Auschwitz-Birkenau sub-camp, a camp was established for Ukrainians who had been displaced during the “Wisła Action” (around 4,000 people). Later, between 1951 and 1961, it housed young political prisoners (mainly middle-school students aged 15-25). During that time, about 5,000 people passed through this prison.